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Increased muscle blood supply and transendothelial nutrient and insulin transport induced by food intake and exercise: effect of obesity and ageing

Wagenmakers, Anton J. M., Strauss, Juliette A., Shepherd, Sam O., Keske, Michelle A. and Cocks, Matthew 2016, Increased muscle blood supply and transendothelial nutrient and insulin transport induced by food intake and exercise: effect of obesity and ageing, Journal of physiology, vol. 594, no. 8, pp. 2207-2222, doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2014.284513.

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Title Increased muscle blood supply and transendothelial nutrient and insulin transport induced by food intake and exercise: effect of obesity and ageing
Author(s) Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.
Strauss, Juliette A.
Shepherd, Sam O.
Keske, Michelle A.ORCID iD for Keske, Michelle A. orcid.org/0000-0003-4214-7628
Cocks, Matthew
Journal name Journal of physiology
Volume number 594
Issue number 8
Start page 2207
End page 2222
Total pages 16
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell
Place of publication Chichester, Eng.
Publication date 2016-04-15
ISSN 1469-7793
Keyword(s) Aging
Animals
Capillary Permeability
Eating
Endothelium, Vascular
Exercise
Humans
Insulin
Muscle, Skeletal
Obesity
Summary This review concludes that a sedentary lifestyle, obesity and ageing impair the vasodilator response of the muscle microvasculature to insulin, exercise and VEGF-A and reduce microvascular density. Both impairments contribute to the development of insulin resistance, obesity and chronic age-related diseases. A physically active lifestyle keeps both the vasodilator response and microvascular density high. Intravital microscopy has shown that microvascular units (MVUs) are the smallest functional elements to adjust blood flow in response to physiological signals and metabolic demands on muscle fibres. The luminal diameter of a common terminal arteriole (TA) controls blood flow through up to 20 capillaries belonging to a single MVU. Increases in plasma insulin and exercise/muscle contraction lead to recruitment of additional MVUs. Insulin also increases arteriolar vasomotion. Both mechanisms increase the endothelial surface area and therefore transendothelial transport of glucose, fatty acids (FAs) and insulin by specific transporters, present in high concentrations in the capillary endothelium. Future studies should quantify transporter concentration differences between healthy and at risk populations as they may limit nutrient supply and oxidation in muscle and impair glucose and lipid homeostasis. An important recent discovery is that VEGF-B produced by skeletal muscle controls the expression of FA transporter proteins in the capillary endothelium and thus links endothelial FA uptake to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, potentially preventing lipotoxic FA accumulation, the dominant cause of insulin resistance in muscle fibres.
Language eng
DOI 10.1113/jphysiol.2014.284513
Field of Research 110699 Human Movement and Sports Science not elsewhere classified
111603 Systems Physiology
110201 Cardiology (incl Cardiovascular Diseases)
110306 Endocrinology
06 Biological Sciences
11 Medical And Health Sciences
Socio Economic Objective 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2015, The Authors, Journal of Physiology & The Physiological Society
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30092187

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