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Towards phosphorus free Ionic liquid anti-wear lubricant additives

Somers, Anthony E, Yunis, Ruhamah, Armand, Michael B, Pringle, Jennifer M, MacFarlane, Douglas R and Forsyth, Maria 2016, Towards phosphorus free Ionic liquid anti-wear lubricant additives, Lubricants, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1-12, doi: 10.3390/lubricants4020022.

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Title Towards phosphorus free Ionic liquid anti-wear lubricant additives
Author(s) Somers, Anthony EORCID iD for Somers, Anthony E orcid.org/0000-0002-0220-2904
Yunis, RuhamahORCID iD for Yunis, Ruhamah orcid.org/0000-0002-2549-2086
Armand, Michael B
Pringle, Jennifer MORCID iD for Pringle, Jennifer M orcid.org/0000-0002-2729-2838
MacFarlane, Douglas R
Forsyth, MariaORCID iD for Forsyth, Maria orcid.org/0000-0002-4273-8105
Journal name Lubricants
Volume number 4
Issue number 2
Article ID 22
Start page 1
End page 12
Total pages 12
Publisher MDPI AG
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publication date 2016-06
ISSN 2075-4442
Summary The development of improved anti-wear additives would enable the use of lower viscosity oils that would lead to improved efficiency. Ionic liquids have the potential to be this type of new anti-wear additive. However, currently the best performing ionic liquids that are miscible in non-polar base oils, the phosphonium phosphates, contain phosphorus on both the cation and anion. Manufacturers are seeking to reduce the presence of phosphorus in oils. Here, as a first step towards phosphorus-free anti-wear additives, we have investigated ionic liquids similar to the phosphonium phosphates but having either a phosphorus-free cation or anion. Two quaternary ammonium phosphates (N6,6,6,14)(BEHP) and (N8,8,8,8)(BEHP) and a phosphonium silyl-sulfonate (P6,6,6,14)(SSi) were compared to a phosphonium phosphate (P6,6,6,14)(BEHP) and a traditional zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) as anti-wear additives in mineral oil. The change from a phosphonium to a quaternary ammonium cation drastically reduced the miscibility of the Ionic liquid (IL) in the oil, while the change to a smaller silicon containing anion also resulted in limited miscibility. For the pin-on-disk wear test conditions used here none of the ionic liquids outperformed the ZDDP except the (P6,6,6,14)(BEHP) at a relatively high loading of 0.10 mol·kg−1 (approximately 8 wt%). At a more moderate loading of 0.025 mol·kg−1 the (P6,6,6,14)(SSi) was the best performing ionic liquid by a significant amount, reducing the wear to 44% of the neat mineral oil, while the ZDDP reduced the wear to 25% of the mineral oil value. Electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the presence of a silicon containing tribofilm was responsible for this protective behaviour, suggesting that silicon containing ionic liquids should be further investigated as anti-wear additives for oils.
Language eng
DOI 10.3390/lubricants4020022
Field of Research 091205 Functional Materials
Socio Economic Objective 970103 Expanding Knowledge in the Chemical Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2016, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30093703

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Institute for Frontier Materials
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.