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Activity-specific metabolic rates for diving, transiting, and resting at sea can be estimated from time-activity budgets in free-ranging marine mammals

Jeanniard-du-Dot, Tiphaine, Trites, Andrew W., Arnould, John P. Y., Speakman, John R. and Guinet, Christophe 2017, Activity-specific metabolic rates for diving, transiting, and resting at sea can be estimated from time-activity budgets in free-ranging marine mammals, Ecology and evolution, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 2969-2976, doi: 10.1002/ece3.2546.

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Title Activity-specific metabolic rates for diving, transiting, and resting at sea can be estimated from time-activity budgets in free-ranging marine mammals
Author(s) Jeanniard-du-Dot, Tiphaine
Trites, Andrew W.
Arnould, John P. Y.ORCID iD for Arnould, John P. Y. orcid.org/0000-0003-1124-9330
Speakman, John R.
Guinet, Christophe
Journal name Ecology and evolution
Volume number 7
Issue number 9
Start page 2969
End page 2976
Total pages 8
Publisher Wiley
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2017-05
ISSN 2045-7758
2045-7758
Keyword(s) Antarctic fur seal
Arctocephalus gazella
Callorhinus ursinus
diving
energy expenditure
foraging
metabolic rate
northern fur seal
time–activity budget
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Ecology
Evolutionary Biology
Environmental Sciences & Ecology
time-activity budget
DOUBLY LABELED WATER
ANTARCTIC FUR SEALS
ESTIMATING ENERGY-EXPENDITURE
HEART-RATE
LIONS
ENERGETICS
ANIMALS
ACCELERATION
BEHAVIOR
FIELD
Summary Time and energy are the two most important currencies in animal bioenergetics. How much time animals spend engaged in different activities with specific energetic costs ultimately defines their likelihood of surviving and successfully reproducing. However, it is extremely difficult to determine the energetic costs of independent activities for free‐ranging animals. In this study, we developed a new method to calculate activity‐specific metabolic rates, and applied it to female fur seals. We attached biologgers (that recorded GPS locations, depth profiles, and triaxial acceleration) to 12 northern (Callorhinus ursinus) and 13 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), and used a hierarchical decision tree algorithm to determine time allocation between diving, transiting, resting, and performing slow movements at the surface (grooming, etc.). We concomitantly measured the total energy expenditure using the doubly‐labelled water method. We used a general least‐square model to establish the relationship between time–activity budgets and the total energy spent by each individual during their foraging trip to predict activity‐specific metabolic rates. Results show that both species allocated similar time to diving (~29%), transiting to and from their foraging grounds (~26–30%), and resting (~8–11%). However, Antarctic fur seals spent significantly more time grooming and moving slowly at the surface than northern fur seals (36% vs. 29%). Diving was the most expensive activity (~30 MJ/day if done non‐stop for 24 hr), followed by transiting at the surface (~21 MJ/day). Interestingly, metabolic rates were similar between species while on land or while slowly moving at the surface (~13 MJ/day). Overall, the average field metabolic rate was ~20 MJ/day (for all activities combined). The method we developed to calculate activity‐specific metabolic rates can be applied to terrestrial and marine species to determine the energetic costs of daily activities, as well as to predict the energetic consequences for animals forced to change their time allocations in response to environmental shifts.
Language eng
DOI 10.1002/ece3.2546
Field of Research 060201 Behavioural Ecology
060205 Marine and Estuarine Ecology (incl Marine Ichthyology)
Socio Economic Objective 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2017, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30094153

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.