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Does gender inequity increase men's mortality risk in the United States? A multilevel analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study

Kavanagh, Shane A., Shelley, Julia M. and Stevenson, Christopher 2017, Does gender inequity increase men's mortality risk in the United States? A multilevel analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, SSM - population health, vol. 3, pp. 358-365, doi: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2017.03.003.

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Title Does gender inequity increase men's mortality risk in the United States? A multilevel analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study
Author(s) Kavanagh, Shane A.ORCID iD for Kavanagh, Shane A. orcid.org/0000-0003-0961-7659
Shelley, Julia M.
Stevenson, ChristopherORCID iD for Stevenson, Christopher orcid.org/0000-0003-4026-5719
Journal name SSM - population health
Volume number 3
Start page 358
End page 365
Total pages 8
Publisher Elsevier
Place of publication Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publication date 2017-12
ISSN 2352-8273
Keyword(s) men's health
gender inequity
gender inequality
masculinities
United States
National Longitudinal Mortality Study
Summary A number of theoretical approaches suggest that gender inequity may give rise to health risks for men. This study undertook a multilevel analysis to ascertain if state-level measures of gender inequity are predictors of men's mortality in the United States. Data for the analysis were taken primarily from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, which is based on a random sample of the non-institutionalised population. The full data set included 174,703 individuals nested within 50 states and had a six-year follow-up for mortality. Gender inequity was measured by nine variables: higher education, reproductive rights, abortion provider access, elected office, management, business ownership, labour force participation, earnings and relative poverty. Covariates at the individual level were age, income, education, race/ethnicity, marital status and employment status. Covariates at the state level were income inequality and per capita gross domestic product. The results of logistic multilevel modelling showed a number of measures of state-level gender inequity were significantly associated with men's mortality. In all of these cases greater gender inequity was associated with an increased mortality risk. In fully adjusted models for all-age adult men the elected office (OR 1.05 95% CI 1.01–1.09), business ownership (OR 1.04 95% CI 1.01–1.08), earnings (OR 1.04 95% CI 1.01–1.08) and relative poverty (OR 1.07 95% CI 1.03–1.10) measures all showed statistically significant effects for each 1 standard deviation increase in the gender inequity z-score. Similar effects were seen for working-age men. In older men (65+ years) only the earnings and relative poverty measures were statistically significant. This study provides evidence that gender inequity may increase men's health risks. The effect sizes while small are large enough across the range of gender inequity identified to have important population health implications.
Language eng
DOI 10.1016/j.ssmph.2017.03.003
Field of Research 111706 Epidemiology
Socio Economic Objective 920504 Men's Health
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2017, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No-Derivatives licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30094366

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.