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The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Lewis, Dyani, Newton, Danielle C., Guy, Rebecca J., Ali, Hammad, Chen, Marcus Y., Fairley, Chrsitopher K. and Hocking, Jane S. 2012, The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis, BMC infectious diseases, vol. 12, pp. 1-18, doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-113.

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Title The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Formatted title The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Author(s) Lewis, Dyani
Newton, Danielle C.
Guy, Rebecca J.
Ali, Hammad
Chen, Marcus Y.
Fairley, Chrsitopher K.
Hocking, Jane S.
Journal name BMC infectious diseases
Volume number 12
Article ID 113
Start page 1
End page 18
Total pages 18
Publisher BioMed Central
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2012-05-14
ISSN 1471-2334
Keyword(s) Adolescent
Adult
Australia
Chlamydia Infections
Chlamydia trachomatis
Female
Humans
Male
Pregnancy
Prevalence
Young Adult
Summary Background
Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations.

Methods
Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category.

Results
Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women <25 years in studies conducted post-2005 was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.1, 6.9; five studies), and for men <30 years over the entire review period was 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7, 5.1; six studies). For young Australians aged <25 years attending sexual health, family planning or youth clinics, estimated prevalence was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.1, 7.4; 10 studies) for women and 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9; five studies) for men. Other key findings include pooled prevalence estimates of 22.1% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.3; three studies) for Indigenous women <25 years, 14.6% (95% CI: 11.5, 17.8; three studies) for Indigenous men <25 years, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.8, 6.3; 11 studies) for rectal infection in men who have sex with men. Several studies failed to report basic demographic details such as sex and age, and were therefore excluded from the analysis.

Conclusions
Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.
Language eng
DOI 10.1186/1471-2334-12-113
Field of Research 110899 Medical Microbiology not elsewhere classified
0605 Microbiology
1103 Clinical Sciences
1108 Medical Microbiology
Socio Economic Objective 0 Not Applicable
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2012, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30099888

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Psychology
Open Access Collection
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.