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Catalyzed synthesis and characterization of a novel lignin-based curing agent for the curing of high-performance epoxy resin

Nikafshar, Saeid, Zabihi, Omid, Moradi, Yousef, Ahmadi, Mojtaba, Amiri, Saba and Naebe, Minoo 2017, Catalyzed synthesis and characterization of a novel lignin-based curing agent for the curing of high-performance epoxy resin, Polymers, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1-16, doi: 10.3390/polym9070266.

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Title Catalyzed synthesis and characterization of a novel lignin-based curing agent for the curing of high-performance epoxy resin
Author(s) Nikafshar, Saeid
Zabihi, Omid
Moradi, Yousef
Ahmadi, Mojtaba
Amiri, Saba
Naebe, MinooORCID iD for Naebe, Minoo orcid.org/0000-0002-0607-6327
Journal name Polymers
Volume number 9
Issue number 7
Article ID 266
Start page 1
End page 16
Total pages 16
Publisher MDPI AG
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publication date 2017
ISSN 2073-4360
Keyword(s) renewable epoxy resin
lignin
curing agent
nanocatalyst
Science & Technology
Physical Sciences
Polymer Science
EPOXIDIZED SOYBEAN OIL
MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES
THERMAL-PROPERTIES
AROMATIC DIAMINE
MOLECULAR-WEIGHT
AMINATED LIGNIN
CURED EPOXY
ACID
COMPOSITES
ANHYDRIDE
Summary In this study, lignin, an aromatic compound from the forestry industry, was used as a renewable material to synthesize a new aromatic amine curing agent for epoxy resin. Firstly, lignin was separated from black liquor and hydroxyl groups were converted to tosyl groups as leaving groups. Then, primary amination was conducted using an ammonia solution at high pressure and temperature, in the presence of a nano-alumina-based catalyst. The structure of the nanocatalyst was confirmed by FT-IR, ICP, SEM, and XPS analyses. According to the FT-IR spectra, a demethylation reaction, the substitution of hydroxyl groups with tosyl groups, and then an amination reaction were successfully performed on lignin, which was further confirmed by the 13 C NMR and CHNS analyses. The active hydrogen equivalent of aminated lignin was determined and three samples with 9.9 wt %, 12.9 wt %, and 15.9 wt % of aminated lignin, as curing agents, were prepared for curing the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). The thermal characteristics of the curing process of these epoxy samples were determined by DSC and TGA analyses. Moreover, the mechanical performance of the cured epoxy systems, e.g., the tensile strength and Izod impact strength, were measured, showing that in the presence of 12.9 wt % aminated lignin, the mechanical properties of the aminated lignin-epoxy system exhibited the best performance, which was competitive, compared to the epoxy systems cured by commercial aromatic curing agents.
Language eng
DOI 10.3390/polym9070266
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2017, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30101362

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Institute for Frontier Materials
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.