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Phylogeography of red muntjacs reveals three distinct mitochondrial lineages

Martins, Renata F., Fickel, Jorns, Le, Minh, van Nguyen, Thanh, Nguyen, Ha M., Timmins, Robert, Gan, Han Ming, Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine J., Lenz, Dorina, Förster, Daniel W. and Wilting, Andreas 2017, Phylogeography of red muntjacs reveals three distinct mitochondrial lineages, BMC evolutionary biology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-12, doi: 10.1186/s12862-017-0888-0.

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Title Phylogeography of red muntjacs reveals three distinct mitochondrial lineages
Author(s) Martins, Renata F.
Fickel, Jorns
Le, Minh
van Nguyen, Thanh
Nguyen, Ha M.
Timmins, Robert
Gan, Han Ming
Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine J.
Lenz, Dorina
Förster, Daniel W.
Wilting, Andreas
Journal name BMC evolutionary biology
Volume number 17
Issue number 1
Article ID 34
Start page 1
End page 12
Total pages 12
Publisher BioMed Central
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2017-01-26
ISSN 1471-2148
Keyword(s) phylogeography
archival DNA
muntjac
Southeast Asia
species complex
Summary Background: The members of the genus Muntiacus are of particular interest to evolutionary biologists due to their extreme chromosomal rearrangements and the ongoing discussions about the number of living species. Red muntjacs have the largest distribution of all muntjacs and were formerly considered as one species. Karyotype differences led to the provisional split between the Southern Red Muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) and the Northern Red Muntjac (M. vaginalis), but uncertainties remain as, so far, no phylogenetic study has been conducted. Here, we analysed whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 archival and 16 contemporaneous samples to resolve uncertainties about their taxonomy and used red muntjacs as model for understanding the evolutionary history of other species in Southeast Asia.

Results: We found three distinct matrilineal groups of red muntjacs: Sri Lankan red muntjacs (including the Western Ghats) diverged first from other muntjacs about 1.5 Mya; later northern red muntjacs (including North India and Indochina) and southern red muntjacs (Sundaland) split around 1.12 Mya. The diversification of red muntjacs into these three main lineages was likely promoted by two Pleistocene barriers: one through the Indian subcontinent and one separating the Indochinese and Sundaic red muntjacs. Interestingly, we found a high level of gene flow withi n the populations of northern and southern red muntjacs, indicating gene flow between populations in Indochina and dispersal of red muntjacs over the exposed Sunda Shelf during the Last Glacial Maximum.

Conclusions: Our results provide new insights into the evolution of species in South and Southeast Asia as we found clear genetic differentiation in a widespread and generalist species, corresponding to two known biogeographical barriers: The Isthmus of Kra and the central Indian dry zone. In addition, our molecular data support either the delineation of three monotypic species or three subspecies, but more importantly these data highlight the conservation importance of the Sri Lankan/South Indian red muntjac.
Language eng
DOI 10.1186/s12862-017-0888-0
Field of Research 060408 Genomics
0603 Evolutionary Biology
0604 Genetics
HERDC Research category C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2017, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30101946

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.