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Dietary intake and sources of sodium and potassium among Australian schoolchildren: results from the cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) study

Grimes, Carley A, Riddell, Lynette J, Campbell, Karen J, Beckford, Kelsey, Baxter, Janet R, He, Feng J and Nowson, Caryl A 2017, Dietary intake and sources of sodium and potassium among Australian schoolchildren: results from the cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) study, BMJ open, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1-10, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016639.

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Title Dietary intake and sources of sodium and potassium among Australian schoolchildren: results from the cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) study
Author(s) Grimes, Carley AORCID iD for Grimes, Carley A orcid.org/0000-0002-9123-1888
Riddell, Lynette JORCID iD for Riddell, Lynette J orcid.org/0000-0002-0688-2134
Campbell, Karen JORCID iD for Campbell, Karen J orcid.org/0000-0002-4499-3396
Beckford, Kelsey
Baxter, Janet R
He, Feng J
Nowson, Caryl AORCID iD for Nowson, Caryl A orcid.org/0000-0001-6586-7965
Journal name BMJ open
Volume number 7
Issue number 10
Article ID e016639
Start page 1
End page 10
Total pages 10
Publisher BMJ Publishing Group
Place of publication London, Eng.
Publication date 2017-10
ISSN 2044-6055
Keyword(s) Australia
child
potassium
sodium chloride, dietary
sodium, dietary
science & technology
life sciences & biomedicine
medicine, general & internal
general & internal medicine
blood pressure
international survey
urinary excretion
health children
processed food
energy intake
adolescents
consumption
Summary Objectives To examine sodium and potassium urinary excretion by socioeconomic status (SES), discretionary salt use habits and dietary sources of sodium and potassium in a sample of Australian schoolchildren.

Design Cross-sectional study.

Setting Primary schools located in Victoria, Australia.

Participants 666 of 780 children aged 4–12 years who participated in the Salt and Other Nutrients in Children study returned a complete 24-hour urine collection.

Primary and secondary outcome measures 24-hour urine collection for the measurement of sodium and potassium excretion and 24-hour dietary recall for the assessment of food sources. Parent and child reported use of discretionary salt. SES defined by parental highest level of education.

Results
Participants were 9.3 years (95% CI 9.0 to 9.6) of age and 55% were boys. Mean urinary sodium and potassium excretion was 103 (95% CI 99 to 108) mmol/day (salt equivalent 6.1 g/day) and 47 (95% CI 45 to 49) mmol/day, respectively. Mean molar Na:K ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.5). 72% of children exceeded the age-specific upper level for sodium intake. After adjustment for age, sex and day of urine collection, children from a low socioeconomic background excreted 10.0 (95% CI 17.8 to 2.1) mmol/day more sodium than those of high socioeconomic background (p=0.04). The major sources of sodium were bread (14.8%), mixed cereal-based dishes (9.9%) and processed meat (8.5%). The major sources of potassium were dairy milk (11.5%), potatoes (7.1%) and fruit/vegetable juice (5.4%). Core foods provided 55.3% of dietary sodium and 75.5% of potassium while discretionary foods provided 44.7% and 24.5%, respectively.

Conclusions For most children, sodium intake exceeds dietary recommendations and there is some indication that children of lower socioeconomic background have the highest intakes. Children are consuming about two times more sodium than potassium. To improve sodium and potassium intakes in schoolchildren, product reformulation of lower salt core foods combined with strategies that seek to reduce the consumption of discretionary foods are required.
Language eng
DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016639
Field of Research 111104 Public Nutrition Intervention
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Copyright notice ©2017, the authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution non-commercial licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30108788

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.