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Fuel for the work required: a practical approach to amalgamating train-low paradigms for endurance athletes

Impey, Samuel G., Hammond, Kelly M., Shepherd, Sam O., Sharples, Adam P., Stewart, Claire, Limb, Marie, Smith, Kenneth, Philp, Andrew, Jeromson, Stewart, Hamilton, D. Lee, Close, Graeme L. and Morton, James P. 2016, Fuel for the work required: a practical approach to amalgamating train-low paradigms for endurance athletes, Physiological reports, vol. 4, no. 10, doi: 10.14814/phy2.12803.

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Title Fuel for the work required: a practical approach to amalgamating train-low paradigms for endurance athletes
Author(s) Impey, Samuel G.
Hammond, Kelly M.
Shepherd, Sam O.
Sharples, Adam P.
Stewart, Claire
Limb, Marie
Smith, Kenneth
Philp, Andrew
Jeromson, Stewart
Hamilton, D. Lee
Close, Graeme L.
Morton, James P.
Journal name Physiological reports
Volume number 4
Issue number 10
Article ID e12803
Total pages 15
Publisher Wiley
Place of publication Bethesda, Md.
Publication date 2016-05
ISSN 2051-817X
2051-817X
Keyword(s) Mitochondrial biogenesis
muscle glycogen
train‐low
Adult
Athletes
Bicycling
Cross-Over Studies
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
Dietary Carbohydrates
Exercise
Glycogen
Humans
Male
Muscle, Skeletal
Physical Endurance
Young Adult
Summary Using an amalgamation of previously studied "train-low" paradigms, we tested the effects of reduced carbohydrate (CHO) but high leucine availability on cell-signaling responses associated with exercise-induced regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle protein synthesis (MPS). In a repeated-measures crossover design, 11 males completed an exhaustive cycling protocol with high CHO availability before, during, and after exercise (HIGH) or alternatively, low CHO but high protein (leucine enriched) availability (LOW + LEU). Muscle glycogen was different (P < 0.05) pre-exercise (HIGH: 583 ± 158, LOW + LEU: 271 ± 85 mmol kg(-1) dw) but decreased (P < 0.05) to comparable levels at exhaustion (≈100 mmol kg(-1) dw). Despite differences (P < 0.05) in exercise capacity (HIGH: 158 ± 29, LOW + LEU: 100 ± 17 min), exercise induced (P < 0.05) comparable AMPKα2 (3-4-fold) activity, PGC-1α (13-fold), p53 (2-fold), Tfam (1.5-fold), SIRT1 (1.5-fold), Atrogin 1 (2-fold), and MuRF1 (5-fold) gene expression at 3 h post-exercise. Exhaustive exercise suppressed p70S6K activity to comparable levels immediately post-exercise (≈20 fmol min(-1) mg(-1)). Despite elevated leucine availability post-exercise, p70S6K activity remained suppressed (P < 0.05) 3 h post-exercise in LOW + LEU (28 ± 14 fmol min(-1) mg(-1)), whereas muscle glycogen resynthesis (40 mmol kg(-1) dw h(-1)) was associated with elevated (P < 0.05) p70S6K activity in HIGH (53 ± 30 fmol min(-1) mg(-1)). We conclude: (1) CHO restriction before and during exercise induces "work-efficient" mitochondrial-related cell signaling but; (2) post-exercise CHO and energy restriction maintains p70S6K activity at basal levels despite feeding leucine-enriched protein. Our data support the practical concept of "fuelling for the work required" as a potential strategy for which to amalgamate train-low paradigms into periodized training programs.
Language eng
DOI 10.14814/phy2.12803
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2016, The Authors
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30112687

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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