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Sex differences in the effect of fish-oil supplementation on the adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older people: a randomized controlled trial

Da Boit, Mariasole, Sibson, Rachael, Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj, Meakin, Judith R, Greig, Carolyn A, Aspden, Richard M, Thies, Frank, Jeromson, Stewart, Hamilton, D Lee, Speakman, John R, Hambly, Catherine, Mangoni, Arduino A, Preston, Thomas and Gray, Stuart R 2017, Sex differences in the effect of fish-oil supplementation on the adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older people: a randomized controlled trial, American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 151-158, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.140780.

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Title Sex differences in the effect of fish-oil supplementation on the adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older people: a randomized controlled trial
Author(s) Da Boit, Mariasole
Sibson, Rachael
Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj
Meakin, Judith R
Greig, Carolyn A
Aspden, Richard M
Thies, Frank
Jeromson, Stewart
Hamilton, D Lee
Speakman, John R
Hambly, Catherine
Mangoni, Arduino A
Preston, Thomas
Gray, Stuart R
Journal name American journal of clinical nutrition
Volume number 105
Issue number 1
Start page 151
End page 158
Total pages 8
Publisher Oxford University Press
Place of publication Oxford, Eng.
Publication date 2017-01
ISSN 1938-3207
Keyword(s) aging
exercise
fatty acids
muscle
sarcopenia
adaptation, physiological
adipose tissue
aged
body composition
body mass index
dietary fats
dietary supplements
fatty acids, omega-3
fish oils
lower extremity
movement
muscle strength
muscle, skeletal
resistance training
sex factors
torque
triglycerides
Summary Background: Resistance exercise increases muscle mass and function in older adults, but responses are attenuated compared with younger people. Data suggest that long-chain n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may enhance adaptations to resistance exercise in older women. To our knowledge, this possibility has not been investigated in men.

Objective: We sought to determine the effects of long-chain n–3 PUFA supplementation on resistance exercise training–induced increases in muscle mass and function and whether these effects differ between older men and women.

Design: Fifty men and women [men: n = 27, mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 4.5 y, mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 25.6 ± 4.2; women: n = 23, mean ± SD age: 70.7 ± 3.3 y, mean ± SD BMI: 25.3 ± 4.7] were randomly assigned to either long-chain n–3 PUFA (n = 23; 3 g fish oil/d) or placebo (n = 27; 3 g safflower oil/d) and participated in lower-limb resistance exercise training twice weekly for 18 wk. Muscle size, strength, and quality (strength per unit muscle area), functional abilities, and circulating metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured before and after the intervention.

Results: Maximal isometric torque increased after exercise training to a greater (P < 0.05) extent in the long-chain n–3 PUFA group than in the placebo group in women, with no differences (P > 0.05) between groups in men. In both sexes, the effect of exercise training on maximal isokinetic torque at 30, 90, and 240° s−1, 4-m walk time, chair-rise time, muscle anatomic cross-sectional area, and muscle fat did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. There was a greater (P < 0.05) increase in muscle quality in women after exercise training in the long-chain n–3 PUFA group than in the placebo group, with no such differences in men (P > 0.05). Long-chain n–3 PUFAs resulted in a greater decrease (P < 0.05) than the placebo in plasma triglyceride concentrations in both sexes, with no differences (P > 0.05) in glucose, insulin, or inflammatory markers.

Conclusion: Long-chain n–3 PUFA supplementation augments increases in muscle function and quality in older women but not in older men after resistance exercise training. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02843009.
Language eng
DOI 10.3945/ajcn.116.140780
Field of Research 11 Medical And Health Sciences
09 Engineering
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2017, American Society for Nutrition
Free to Read? Yes
Use Rights Creative Commons Attribution licence
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30112694

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: School of Life and Environmental Sciences
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.