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Global observing needs in the deep ocean

Levin, Lisa A, Bett, Brian J, Gates, Andrew R, Heimbach, Patrick, Howe, Bruce M, Janssen, Felix, McCurdy, Andrea, Ruhl, Henry A, Snelgrove, Paul, Stocks, Karen I, Bailey, David, Baumann-Pickering, Simone, Beaverson, Chris, Benfield, Mark C, Booth, David J, Carreiro-Silva, Marina, Colaço, Ana, Eblé, Marie C, Fowler, Ashley M, Gjerde, Kristina M, Jones, Daniel OB, Katsumata, K, Kelley, Deborah, Bris, Nadine L, Leonardi, Alan P, Lejzerowicz, Franck, Macreadie, Peter I, McLean, Dianne, Meitz, Fred, Morato, Telmo, Netburn, Amanda, Pawlowski, Jan, Smith, Craig R, Sun, Song, Uchida, Hiroshi, Vardaro, Michael F, Venkatesan, R and Weller, Robert A 2019, Global observing needs in the deep ocean, Frontiers in marine science, vol. 6, pp. 1-32, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.241.

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Title Global observing needs in the deep ocean
Author(s) Levin, Lisa A
Bett, Brian J
Gates, Andrew R
Heimbach, Patrick
Howe, Bruce M
Janssen, Felix
McCurdy, Andrea
Ruhl, Henry A
Snelgrove, Paul
Stocks, Karen I
Bailey, David
Baumann-Pickering, Simone
Beaverson, Chris
Benfield, Mark C
Booth, David J
Carreiro-Silva, Marina
Colaço, Ana
Eblé, Marie C
Fowler, Ashley M
Gjerde, Kristina M
Jones, Daniel OB
Katsumata, K
Kelley, Deborah
Bris, Nadine L
Leonardi, Alan P
Lejzerowicz, Franck
Macreadie, Peter IORCID iD for Macreadie, Peter I
McLean, Dianne
Meitz, Fred
Morato, Telmo
Netburn, Amanda
Pawlowski, Jan
Smith, Craig R
Sun, Song
Uchida, Hiroshi
Vardaro, Michael F
Venkatesan, R
Weller, Robert A
Journal name Frontiers in marine science
Volume number 6
Article ID 241
Start page 1
End page 32
Total pages 32
Publisher Frontiers Media
Place of publication Lausanne, Switzerland
Publication date 2019-05
ISSN 2296-7745
Keyword(s) deep sea
ocean observation
blue economy
essential ocean variables
ocean sensors
Summary The deep ocean below 200 m water depth is the least observed, but largest habitat on our planet by volume and area. Over 150 years of exploration has revealed that this dynamic system provides critical climate regulation, houses a wealth of energy, mineral, and biological resources, and represents a vast repository of biological diversity. A long history of deep-ocean exploration and observation led to the initial concept for the Deep-Ocean Observing Strategy (DOOS), under the auspices of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Here we discuss the scientific need for globally integrated deep-ocean observing, its status, and the key scientific questions and societal mandates driving observing requirements over the next decade. We consider the Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) needed to address deep-ocean challenges within the physical, biogeochemical, and biological/ecosystem sciences according to the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), and map these onto scientific questions. Opportunities for new and expanded synergies among deep-ocean stakeholders are discussed, including academic-industry partnerships with the oil and gas, mining, cable and fishing industries, the ocean exploration and mapping community, and biodiversity conservation initiatives. Future deep-ocean observing will benefit from the greater integration across traditional disciplines and sectors, achieved through demonstration projects and facilitated reuse and repurposing of existing deep-sea data efforts. We highlight examples of existing and emerging deep-sea methods and technologies, noting key challenges associated with data volume, preservation, standardization, and accessibility. Emerging technologies relevant to deep-ocean sustainability and the blue economy include novel genomics approaches, imaging technologies, and ultra-deep hydrographic measurements. Capacity building will be necessary to integrate capabilities into programs and projects at a global scale. Progress can be facilitated by Open Science and Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable (FAIR) data principles and converge on agreed to data standards, practices, vocabularies, and registries. We envision expansion of the deep-ocean observing community to embrace the participation of academia, industry, NGOs, national governments, international governmental organizations, and the public at large in order to unlock critical knowledge contained in the deep ocean over coming decades, and to realize the mutual benefits of thoughtful deep-ocean observing for all elements of a sustainable ocean.
Language eng
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2019.241
Indigenous content off
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Copyright notice ©2019, Levin, Bett, Gates, Heimbach, Howe, Janssen, McCurdy, Ruhl, Snelgrove, Stocks, Bailey, Baumann-Pickering, Beaverson, Benfield, Booth, CarreiroSilva, Colaço, Eblé, Fowler, Gjerde, Jones, Katsumata, Kelley, Le Bris, Leonardi, Lejzerowicz, Macreadie, McLean, Meitz, Morato, Netburn, Pawlowski, Smith, Sun, Uchida, Vardaro, Venkatesan and Weller
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact