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Infant formula consumption is positively correlated with wealth, within and between countries: a multi-country study

Neves, Paulo AR, Gatica-Domínguez, Giovanna, Rollins, Nigel C, Piwoz, Ellen, Baker, Phillip, Barros, Aluisio JD and Victora, Cesar G 2019, Infant formula consumption is positively correlated with wealth, within and between countries: a multi-country study, The Journal of Nutrition, pp. 1-8, doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz327.

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Title Infant formula consumption is positively correlated with wealth, within and between countries: a multi-country study
Author(s) Neves, Paulo AR
Gatica-Domínguez, Giovanna
Rollins, Nigel C
Piwoz, Ellen
Baker, PhillipORCID iD for Baker, Phillip orcid.org/0000-0002-0802-2349
Barros, Aluisio JD
Victora, Cesar G
Journal name The Journal of Nutrition
Start page 1
End page 8
Total pages 8
Publisher Oxford University Press
Place of publication Oxford, Eng.
Publication date 2019
ISSN 0022-3166
1541-6100
Keyword(s) breast feeding
breastmilk substitutes
economic status
health equity
infant and young child feeding
socioeconomic factors
Summary BackgroundIn contrast with the ample literature on within- and between-country inequalities in breastfeeding practices, there are no multi-country analyses of socioeconomic disparities in breastmilk substitute (BMS) consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).ObjectiveThis study aimed to investigate between- and within-country socioeconomic inequalities in breastfeeding and BMS consumption in LMICs.MethodsWe examined data from the Demographic Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys conducted in 90 LMICs since 2010 to calculate Pearson correlation coefficients between infant feeding indicators and per capita gross domestic product (GDP). Within-country inequalities in exclusive breastfeeding, intake of formula or other types of nonhuman milk (cow/goat) were studied for infants aged 0–5 mo, and for continued breastfeeding at ages 12–15 mo through graphical presentation of coverage wealth quintiles.ResultsBetween-country analyses showed that log GDP was inversely correlated with exclusive (r = −0.37, P < 0.001) and continued breastfeeding (r = −0.74, P < 0.0001), and was positively correlated with formula intake (r = 0.70, P < 0.0001). Continued breastfeeding was inversely correlated with formula (r = −0.79, P < 0.0001), and was less strongly correlated with the intake of other types of nonhuman milk (r = −0.40, P < 0.001). Within-country analyses showed that 69 out of 89 did not have significant disparities in exclusive breastfeeding. Continued breastfeeding was significantly higher in children belonging to the poorest 20% of households compared with the wealthiest 20% in 40 countries (by ∼30 percentage points on average), whereas formula feeding was more common in the wealthiest group in 59 countries.ConclusionsBMS intake is positively associated with GDP and negatively associated with continued breastfeeding in LMICs. In most countries, BMS intake is positively associated with family wealth, and will likely become more widespread as countries develop. Urgent action is needed to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding in all income groups and to reduce the intake of BMS, in light of the hazards associated with their use.
Language eng
DOI 10.1093/jn/nxz327
Indigenous content off
Field of Research 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics
0702 Animal Production
0908 Food Sciences
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Free to Read? Yes
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30134095

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.