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Komodo dragons are not ecological analogs of apex mammalian predators

Jessop, Timothy, Ariefiandy, A, Forsyth, DM, Purwandana, D, White, CR, Benu, YJ, Madsen, T, Harlow, HJ and Letnic, M 2020, Komodo dragons are not ecological analogs of apex mammalian predators, Ecology, pp. 1-11, doi: 10.1002/ecy.2970.

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Title Komodo dragons are not ecological analogs of apex mammalian predators
Author(s) Jessop, TimothyORCID iD for Jessop, Timothy orcid.org/0000-0002-7712-4373
Ariefiandy, A
Forsyth, DM
Purwandana, D
White, CR
Benu, YJ
Madsen, T
Harlow, HJ
Letnic, M
Journal name Ecology
Article ID e02970
Start page 1
End page 11
Total pages 11
Publisher Wiley
Place of publication Chichester, Eng.
Publication date 2020-01
ISSN 0012-9658
Keyword(s) Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Ecology
Environmental Sciences & Ecology
large mammal
per capita metabolic rate
population density
population energy use
predatory function
species traits
BODY-SIZE
POPULATION-DENSITY
FOOD WEBS
INTERACTION STRENGTHS
FORAGING BEHAVIOR
METABOLIC-RATE
BOTTOM-UP
TOP-DOWN
COMMUNITY
PREY
Summary Apex predators can have substantial and complex ecological roles in ecosystems. However, differences in species-specific traits, population densities, and interspecific interactions are likely to determine the strength of apex predators’ roles. Here we report complementary studies examining how interactions between predator per capita metabolic rate and population density influenced the biomass, population energy use, and ecological effects of apex predators on their large mammalian prey. We first investigated how large mammal prey resources and field metabolic rates of terrestrial apex predators, comprising large mammals and the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), influenced their biomass densities and population energy use requirements. We next evaluated whether Komodo dragons, like apex mammalian predators, exerted top-down regulation of their large mammal prey. Comparison of results from field studies demonstrates that Komodo dragons attain mean population biomass densities that are 5.75−231.82 times higher than that of apex mammalian predator species and their guilds in Africa, Asia, and North America. The high biomass of Komodo dragons resulted in 1.96−108.12 times greater population energy use than that of apex mammalian predators. Nevertheless, substantial temporal and spatial variation in Komodo dragon population energy use did not regulate the population growth rates of either of two large mammal prey species, rusa deer (Rusa timorensis) and wild pig (Sus scrofa). We suggest that multiple processes weaken the capacity of Komodo dragons to regulate large mammal prey populations. For example, a low per capita metabolic rate requiring an infrequent and inactive hunting strategy (including scavenging), would minimize lethal and nonlethal impacts on prey populations. We conclude that Komodo dragons differ in their predatory role from, including not being the ecological analogs of, apex mammalian predators.
Language eng
DOI 10.1002/ecy.2970
Field of Research 0501 Ecological Applications
0602 Ecology
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
ERA Research output type C Journal article
Free to Read? Yes
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30135094

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.