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Risk of adverse outcomes in females taking oral creatine monohydrate: a systematic review and meta-analysis

de Guingand, Deborah L, Palmer, Kirsten R, Snow, Rodney J, Davies-Tuck, Miranda L and Ellery, Stacey J 2020, Risk of adverse outcomes in females taking oral creatine monohydrate: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1-26, doi: 10.3390/nu12061780.

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Title Risk of adverse outcomes in females taking oral creatine monohydrate: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Author(s) de Guingand, Deborah L
Palmer, Kirsten R
Snow, Rodney JORCID iD for Snow, Rodney J orcid.org/0000-0002-4796-6916
Davies-Tuck, Miranda L
Ellery, Stacey J
Journal name Nutrients
Volume number 12
Issue number 6
Article ID 1780
Start page 1
End page 26
Total pages 26
Publisher MDPI
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publication date 2020-06
ISSN 2072-6643
2072-6643
Keyword(s) Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Nutrition & Dietetics
creatine monohydrate
supplementation
adverse outcomes
safety
human
female
Summary Creatine Monohydrate (CrM) is a dietary supplement routinely used as an ergogenic aid for sport and training, and as a potential therapeutic aid to augment different disease processes. Despite its increased use in recent years, studies reporting potential adverse outcomes of CrM have been mostly derived from male or mixed sex populations. A systematic search was conducted, which included female participants on CrM, where adverse outcomes were reported, with meta-analysis performed where appropriate. Six hundred and fifty-six studies were identified where creatine supplementation was the primary intervention; fifty-eight were female only studies (9%). Twenty-nine studies monitored for adverse outcomes, with 951 participants. There were no deaths or serious adverse outcomes reported. There were no significant differences in total adverse events, (risk ratio (RR) 1.24 (95% CI 0.51, 2.98)), gastrointestinal events, (RR 1.09 (95% CI 0.53, 2.24)), or weight gain, (mean difference (MD) 1.24 kg pre-intervention, (95% CI −0.34, 2.82)) to 1.37 kg post-intervention (95% CI −0.50, 3.23)), in CrM supplemented females, when stratified by dosing regimen and subject to meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference was reported in measures of renal or hepatic function. In conclusion, mortality and serious adverse events are not associated with CrM supplementation in females. Nor does the use of creatine supplementation increase the risk of total adverse outcomes, weight gain or renal and hepatic complications in females. However, all future studies of creatine supplementation in females should consider surveillance and comprehensive reporting of adverse outcomes to better inform participants and health professionals involved in future trials.
Language eng
DOI 10.3390/nu12061780
Indigenous content off
Field of Research 0908 Food Sciences
1111 Nutrition and Dietetics
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Free to Read? Yes
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30139379

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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.