Effects of a multi-modal resistance exercise program and calcium-vitamin D3 fortified milk on blood pressure and blood lipids in middle-aged and older men: secondary analysis of an 18-month factorial design randomised controlled trial.

Foulkes, S, Kukuljan, S, Nowson, CA, Sanders, KM and Daly, Robin 2020, Effects of a multi-modal resistance exercise program and calcium-vitamin D3 fortified milk on blood pressure and blood lipids in middle-aged and older men: secondary analysis of an 18-month factorial design randomised controlled trial., Eur J Nutr, doi: 10.1007/s00394-020-02325-x.


Title Effects of a multi-modal resistance exercise program and calcium-vitamin D3 fortified milk on blood pressure and blood lipids in middle-aged and older men: secondary analysis of an 18-month factorial design randomised controlled trial.
Author(s) Foulkes, S
Kukuljan, S
Nowson, CA
Sanders, KM
Daly, RobinORCID iD for Daly, Robin orcid.org/0000-0002-9897-1598
Journal name Eur J Nutr
Place of publication Germany
Publication date 2020-07-14
ISSN 1436-6215
Keyword(s) Calcium
Cardiovascular disease
Exercise
Men
Milk
Vitamin D
Summary PURPOSE: Physical activity and dietary interventions are recommended as front-line therapy for prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the independent and combined effects of low-fat, calcium-vitamin D3 fortified milk and multi-modal exercise training on blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids in middle-aged and older men. METHODS: This was a pre-planned secondary analysis of an 18-month, randomised controlled trial. Community-dwelling men aged 50-79 years (n = 180) were randomised into (i) exercise + fortified milk; (ii) fortified milk; (iii) exercise; or (iv) control. The low-fat milk (400 mL/day) was fortified with 1,000 mg/day calcium and 800 IU/day of vitamin-D3, whilst the exercise intervention consisted of three sessions/week of resistance- and weight-bearing impact exercises. Resting BP and fasting lipids were assessed at baseline, 6 (lipids only), 12 and 18 months. RESULTS: Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D and calcium intake for the entire cohort at baseline was 86 ± 36 nmol/L and 1002 ± 397 mg/day, respectively, with 10% classified as vitamin-D insufficient and 58% reporting a calcium intake below 1000 mg/day. There were no exercise-by-fortified milk interactions, nor any main-group effects for exercise or milk on BP or lipids at any time. However, there were significant reductions from baseline to 18 months in systolic (mean change, 5-8 mmHg) and diastolic (4-6 mmHg) BP in the exercise, fortified milk and control groups. All results remained largely unchanged after adjusting for use of anti-hypertensive or lipid lowering medication, weight or fat mass, or only including men with hypertension (n = 89) or dyslipidemia (n = 130) at baseline. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with low-fat, calcium + vitamin D3 fortified milk and a multi-modal exercise program, alone or in combination, was not effective for improving BP or blood lipids in community-dwelling middle-aged and older men.
Language eng
DOI 10.1007/s00394-020-02325-x
Field of Research 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics

Document type: Journal Article
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