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Additive manufacturing of steels: a review of achievements and challenges

Haghdadi, Nima, Laleh, Majid, Moyle, Maxwell and Primig, Sophie 2020, Additive manufacturing of steels: a review of achievements and challenges, Journal of Materials Science, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 64-107, doi: 10.1007/s10853-020-05109-0.

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Title Additive manufacturing of steels: a review of achievements and challenges
Author(s) Haghdadi, Nima
Laleh, MajidORCID iD for Laleh, Majid orcid.org/0000-0003-1584-6941
Moyle, Maxwell
Primig, Sophie
Journal name Journal of Materials Science
Volume number 56
Issue number 1
Start page 64
End page 107
Total pages 44
Publisher Springer
Place of publication Berlin, Germany
Publication date 2020
ISSN 0022-2461
1573-4803
Keyword(s) Science & Technology
Technology
Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
Materials Science
316L STAINLESS-STEEL
PROCESSING HEAT-TREATMENT
CRACK-GROWTH-BEHAVIOR
MELTED MARAGING-STEEL
LASER MELTING PROCESS
SUB-GRAIN STRUCTURE
MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES
TOOL STEEL
FATIGUE BEHAVIOR
RESIDUAL-STRESSES
Summary Metal additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is a disruptive manufacturing technology in which complex engineering parts are produced in a layer-by-layer manner, using a high-energy heating source and powder, wire or sheet as feeding material. The current paper aims to review the achievements in AM of steels in its ability to obtain superior properties that cannot be achieved through conventional manufacturing routes, thanks to the unique microstructural evolution in AM. The challenges that AM encounters are also reviewed, and suggestions for overcoming these challenges are provided if applicable. We focus on laser powder bed fusion and directed energy deposition as these two methods are currently the most common AM methods to process steels. The main foci are on austenitic stainless steels and maraging/precipitation-hardened (PH) steels, the two so far most widely used classes of steels in AM, before summarising the state-of-the-art of AM of other classes of steels. Our comprehensive review highlights that a wide range of steels can be processed by AM. The unique microstructural features including hierarchical (sub)grains and fine precipitates induced by AM result in enhancements of strength, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of AM steels when compared to their conventional counterparts. Achieving an acceptable ductility and fatigue performance remains a challenge in AM steels. AM also acts as an intrinsic heat treatment, triggering ‘in situ’ phase transformations including tempering and other precipitation phenomena in different grades of steels such as PH steels and tool steels. A thorough discussion of the performance of AM steels as a function of these unique microstructural features is presented in this review.
Language eng
DOI 10.1007/s10853-020-05109-0
Indigenous content off
Field of Research 03 Chemical Sciences
09 Engineering
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Free to Read? Yes
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30144652

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Institute for Frontier Materials
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Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that permission has been obtained for items included in DRO. If you believe that your rights have been infringed by this repository, please contact drosupport@deakin.edu.au.