Factors influencing blood alkalosis and other physiological responses, gastrointestinal symptoms, and exercise performance following sodium citrate supplementation: a review

Urwin, Charles S, Snow, Rodney J, Condo, Dominique, Snipe, Rhiannon, Wadley, Glenn D and Carr, Amelia J 2021, Factors influencing blood alkalosis and other physiological responses, gastrointestinal symptoms, and exercise performance following sodium citrate supplementation: a review, International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, pp. 1-19, doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2020-0192.

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Title Factors influencing blood alkalosis and other physiological responses, gastrointestinal symptoms, and exercise performance following sodium citrate supplementation: a review
Author(s) Urwin, Charles SORCID iD for Urwin, Charles S orcid.org/0000-0002-9467-0077
Snow, Rodney JORCID iD for Snow, Rodney J orcid.org/0000-0002-4796-6916
Condo, DominiqueORCID iD for Condo, Dominique orcid.org/0000-0002-8348-7488
Snipe, RhiannonORCID iD for Snipe, Rhiannon orcid.org/0000-0002-3754-6782
Wadley, Glenn DORCID iD for Wadley, Glenn D orcid.org/0000-0002-6617-4359
Carr, Amelia JORCID iD for Carr, Amelia J orcid.org/0000-0003-3855-2540
Journal name International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism
Start page 1
End page 19
Total pages 19
Publisher Human Kinetics Publishers
Place of publication Champaign, Ill.
Publication date 2021
ISSN 1526-484X
1543-2742
Keyword(s) buffering agent
dietary supplements
ergogenic aids
Summary This review aimed to identify factors associated with (a) physiological responses, (b) gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and (c) exercise performance following sodium citrate supplementation. A literature search identified 33 articles. Observations of physiological responses and GI symptoms were categorized by dose (< 500, 500, and > 500 mg/kg body mass [BM]) and by timing of postingestion measurements (in minutes). Exercise performance following sodium citrate supplementation was compared with placebo using statistical significance, percentage change, and effect size. Performance observations were categorized by exercise duration (very short < 60 s, short ≥ 60 and ≤ 420 s, and longer > 420 s) and intensity (very high > 100% VO2max and high 90–100% VO2max). Ingestion of 500 mg/kg BM sodium citrate induced blood alkalosis more frequently than < 500 mg/kg BM, and with similar frequency to >500 mg/kg BM. The GI symptoms were minimized when a 500 mg/kg BM dose was ingested in capsules rather than in solution. Significant improvements in performance following sodium citrate supplementation were reported in all observations of short-duration and very high–intensity exercise with a 500 mg/kg BM dose. However, the efficacy of supplementation for short-duration, high-intensity exercise is less clear, given that only 25% of observations reported significant improvements in performance following sodium citrate supplementation. Based on the current literature, the authors recommend ingestion of 500 mg/kg BM sodium citrate in capsules to induce alkalosis and minimize GI symptoms. Supplementation was of most benefit to performance of short-duration exercise of very high intensity; further investigation is required to determine the importance of ingestion duration and timing.
Language eng
DOI 10.1123/ijsnem.2020-0192
Indigenous content off
Field of Research 1106 Human Movement and Sports Sciences
1116 Medical Physiology
HERDC Research category C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
Persistent URL http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30147293

Document type: Journal Article
Collections: Faculty of Health
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
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