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Alcohol use, abuse and dependence
chapterposted on 01.12.2008, 00:00 authored by C A Essau, Delyse HutchinsonDelyse Hutchinson
A small proportion of the adolescents who consume alcohol develop alcohol abuse or dependency, which is characterized by a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use leading to significant impairment or distress. This chapter begins with an indication that a high number of adolescents have had some experience with alcohol and draws attention to the factors leading to abuse and dependency, prevention and intervention strategies, etc. The prevalence of alcohol use and alcohol use disorder varies because of differences in law regarding purchased and consumption of alcoholic beverages across countries, laws regarding advertising of alcoholic beverages differ across countries and cultural views about the use of alcohol determining the accessibility and acceptance of its use. Considerable progress has been made over the last decade in the identification and evaluation of prevention and intervention strategies that aim to reduce alcohol use and misuse in young people. College programs that comprise cognitive skills training, brief motivational enhancement and/or alcohol expectancy challenges have also demonstrated efficacy, particularly among high-risk and problem drinkers. Directions for addressing the gaps are provided, including ways in which genetic programs and strategies may be adapted for implementation in these groups. Despite these promising developments, many interventions have not yet been subject to the rigorous level of evaluation required to ascertain efficacy. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.