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Closed-loop control of 4D-printed hydrogel soft robots
chapterposted on 2022-09-29, 05:32 authored by Ali ZolfagharianAli Zolfagharian, M Bodaghi, P Heidarian, Abbas KouzaniAbbas Kouzani, Akif KaynakAkif Kaynak
Polyelectrolyte hydrogels consist of highly polar polymer chains, that form hydrophilic networks with desirable features such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, tunable mechanical, and electrical properties; hence, they could be promising materials for three-dimensional (3D)-printed biomedical applications. The progress in materials science and 3D printing can provide the platform to pursue innovative applications of polyelectrolytes in 4D printing and soft robotics where the shape-changing characteristics of such materials in response to external energy stimuli can be utilized in manufacturing specialized functional materials. This chapter presents a detailed report of design, fabrication, characterization, optimization, modeling, and control of a common polyelectrolyte hydrogel, chitosan in a 4D printing study with a soft robotic direction. The printing parameters are optimized for the actuation performance for a specified geometrical model. The performance of the 4D-printed polyelectrolyte is compared to the conventional cast film replica. A systematic approach to modeling and control methods including other 4D-printed polyelectrolyte gels soft robots is also presented.