File(s) under permanent embargo
Industrial wastewater minimization
chapterposted on 2002-01-01, 00:00 authored by C Visvanathan, S Vigneswaran, Veeriah Jegatheesan
Industrial pollution emitted to the environment has created a drastic damage to the environment. Natural purification processes such as dilution and dispersion are not applicable due to the enormous amounts of discharged wastes, as they exceed the assimilative capacity of the local environment. Concern about the environment by the general public has forced governments to establish effluent standards for industrial wastes and emissions. Increasing numbers of industries each year has exerted pressure on the environment compelling regulators to further tighten the standards. This has led to modification and improvement in the existing end-of-pipe treatment facilities resulting in higher investment as well as operation and maintenance cost, whereas in recent years, implementation of proactive methods of waste minimization is gaining much attention within industrial sectors. Various waste minimization techniques such as improved housekeeping, change in process technology, change in product, change in input materials, recycling of chemical and raw materials, and recovery of byproducts are discussed in detail. A number of successful examples discussed in this paper indicate that substantial benefits can be gained by implementing waste minimization programs.