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Neuroimaging and electrophysiology efficacy in measuring acute effects and long-term sequelae following sports-related concussion
chapterposted on 2015-01-01, 00:00 authored by Brendan Major, J J Maller, Mark RogersMark Rogers, A J Pearce
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex pathophysiological process resulting from external forces applied to the skull and affecting the brain. TBI is a significant global contributor to disability and death, particularly in children and young adults. The severity of a TBI may range from "mild" (a brief change in mental status or consciousness) to "severe" (an extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia after the injury), with mild TBI (mTBI) the most common form, diagnosed in 80-90% of cases. Sports-related concussion contributes significantly to mTBI accounting for nearly 20% of all mTBI cases. In the past decade there has been increasing growing public concern regarding the association of sports concussion; in particular further chance of recurrent injury following a concussion due to transient cognitive impairments, and long-term detrimental mental health issues and deterioration in brain function as a consequence of multiple concussions. Attention is also turning to methods to assess concussion with questions surrounding the reliability in traditional methods of concussion assessment that include symptom observation and cognitive assessment. This chapter will discuss the neuroscience of sports-related concussion, reviewing the evidence from new and rigorous methods of concussion assessment, such as neuroimaging and electrophysiology, with a focus on transcranial magnetic stimulation, following acute concussive events through tolong-term manifestations of multiple concussions.