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Improved risk predictions via sparse imputation of patient conditions in electronic medical records
conference contributionposted on 2015-10-19, 00:00 authored by Budhaditya Saha, Sunil GuptaSunil Gupta, Svetha VenkateshSvetha Venkatesh
Electronic Medical Records (EMR) are increasingly used for risk prediction. EMR analysis is complicated by missing entries. There are two reasons - the “primary reason for admission” is included in EMR, but the co-morbidities (other chronic diseases) are left uncoded, and, many zero values in the data are accurate, reflecting that a patient has not accessed medical facilities. A key challenge is to deal with the peculiarities of this data - unlike many other datasets, EMR is sparse, reflecting the fact that patients have some, but not all diseases. We propose a novel model to fill-in these missing values, and use the new representation for prediction of key hospital events. To “fill-in” missing values, we represent the feature-patient matrix as a product of two low rank factors, preserving the sparsity property in the product. Intuitively, the product regularization allows sparse imputation of patient conditions reflecting common comorbidities across patients. We develop a scalable optimization algorithm based on Block coordinate descent method to find an optimal solution. We evaluate the proposed framework on two real world EMR cohorts: Cancer (7000 admissions) and Acute Myocardial Infarction (2652 admissions). Our result shows that the AUC for 3 months admission prediction is improved significantly from (0.741 to 0.786) for Cancer data and (0.678 to 0.724) for AMI data. We also extend the proposed method to a supervised model for predicting of multiple related risk outcomes (e.g. emergency presentations and admissions in hospital over 3, 6 and 12 months period) in an integrated framework. For this model, the AUC averaged over outcomes is improved significantly from (0.768 to 0.806) for Cancer data and (0.685 to 0.748) for AMI data.