Deakin University

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A potential copper-regulatory role for cytosolic expression of the DNA repair protein XRCC5

journal contribution
posted on 2011-12-01, 00:00 authored by T Du, A Caragounis, S Parker, J Meyerowitz, Sharon La FontaineSharon La Fontaine, K Kanninen, V Perreau, P Crouch, A White
Copper (Cu) has a critical role in the generation of oxidative stress during neurodegeneration and cancer. Reactive oxygen species generated through abnormal elevation or deficiency of Cu can lead to lipid, protein, and DNA damage. Oxidation of DNA can induce strand breaks and is associated with altered cell fate including transformation or death. DNA repair is mediated through the action of the multimeric DNA-PK repair complex. The components of this complex are the Ku autoantigens, XRCC5 and XRCC6 (Ku80 and Ku70, respectively). How this repair complex responds to perturbed Cu homeostasis and Cu-mediated oxidative stress has not been investigated. We previously reported that XRCC5 expression is altered in response to cellular Cu levels, with low Cu inhibiting XRCC5 expression and high Cu levels enhancing expression. In this study we further investigated the interaction between XRCC5 and Cu. We report that cytosolic XRCC5 is increased in response to Cu, but not zinc, iron, or nickel, and the level of cytosolic XRCC5 correlates with protection against oxidative damage to DNA. These observations were made in both HeLa cells and fibroblasts. Cytosolic XRCC5 interacted with the Cu chaperone and detoxification protein human Atox1 homologue (HAH), and down regulation of XRCC5 expression using siRNA led to enhanced HAH expression when cells were exposed to Cu. XRCC5 could also be purified from cytosolic extracts using a Cu-loaded column. These findings provide further evidence that cytosolic XRCC5 has a key role in protection against DNA oxidation from Cu, through either direct sequestration or signaling through other Cu-detoxification molecules. Our findings have important implications for the development of therapeutic treatments targeting Cu in neurodegeneration and/or cancer.



Free radical biology and medicine






2060 - 2072




Amsterdam, The Netherlands







Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2011, Elsevier