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A systematic review and meta-analysis of 24-h urinary output of children and adolescents: impact on the assessment of iodine status using urinary biomarkers

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Purpose: Urinary iodine concentration (UIC (μg/ml) from spot urine samples collected from school-aged children is used to determine the iodine status of populations. Some studies further extrapolate UIC to represent daily iodine intake, based on the assumption that children pass approximately 1 L urine over 24-h, but this has never been assessed in population studies. Therefore, the present review aimed to collate and produce an estimate of the average 24-h urine volume of children and adolescents (> 1 year and < 19 years) from published studies. Methods: EBSCOHOST and EMBASE databases were searched to identify studies which reported the mean 24-h urinary volume of healthy children (> 1 year and < 19 years). The overall mean (95% CI) estimate of 24-h urine volume was determined using a random effects model, broken down by age group. Results: Of the 44 studies identified, a meta-analysis of 27 studies, with at least one criterion for assessing the completeness of urine collections, indicated that the mean urine volume of 2–19 year olds was 773 (654, 893) (95% CI) mL/24-h. When broken down by age group, mean (95% CI) 24-h urine volume was 531 mL/day (454, 607) for 2–5 year olds, 771 mL/day (734, 808) for 6–12 year olds, and 1067 mL/day (855, 1279) for 13–19 year olds. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the average urine volume of children aged 2–12 years is less than 1 L, therefore, misclassification of iodine intakes may occur when urine volumes fall below or above 1 L. Future studies utilizing spot urine samples to assess iodine status should consider this when extrapolating UIC to represent iodine intakes of a population.

History

Journal

European journal of nutrition

Volume

59

Issue

7

Pagination

3113 - 3131

Publisher

Springer

Location

Berlin, Germany

ISSN

1436-6207

eISSN

1436-6215

Language

eng

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal