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Adjunctive minocycline for major depressive disorder: A sub-study exploring peripheral immune-inflammatory markers and associated treatment response
journal contributionposted on 2023-02-14, 23:12 authored by Adam WalkerAdam Walker, Mohammadreza MohebbiMohammadreza Mohebbi, M Maes, M Berk, Ken WalderKen Walder, Chiara BortolasciChiara Bortolasci, ZS Liu, CH Ng, Melanie AshtonMelanie Ashton, Lesley BerkLesley Berk, AB Singh, GS Malhi, Olivia DeanOlivia Dean
Background: Adjunctive minocycline shows promise in treating affective and psychotic disorders; however, the therapeutic mechanism remains unclear. Identifying relevant biomarkers may enhance the efficacy of novel adjunctive treatment candidates. We thus investigated the peripheral immune-inflammatory profile in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of minocycline in major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: This sub-study investigated serum samples from a RCT evaluating minocycline (200 mg/day, 12 weeks) in addition to treatment as usual for MDD (ACTRN12612000283875). Of the original sample (N = 71), serum assays were conducted in 47 participants (placebo n = 24; minocycline n = 23) targeting an array of 46 immune-inflammatory analytes including cytokines, chemokines, and acute-phase reactants. General estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess whether analyte concentration at baseline (effect modification) and change in analytes (change association) influenced change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score over time. The Benjamini–Hochberg approach was applied when adjusting for false discovery rates (FDR). Results: GEE models revealed several interaction effects. After adjusting for FDR several change association-models survived correction. However, no such models remained significant for effect modification. Three-way GROUP × TIME × MARKER interactions were significant for complement C3 (B = −10.46, 95%CI [-16.832, −4.095], q = 0.019) and IL-1Ra (B = −9.008, 95%CI [-15.26, −2.751], q = 0.036). Two-way GROUP × BIOMARKER interactions were significant for ICAM-1/CD54 (B = −0.387, 95%CI [-0.513, −0.26], q < 0.001) and IL-8/CXCL8 (B = −4.586, 95%CI [-7.698, −1.475], q = 0.036) indicating that increases in the serum concentration of these analytes were associated with an improvement in MADRS scores in the minocycline group (compared with placebo). Conclusions: Change in complement C3, IL-1Ra, IL-8/CXCL8, and ICAM-1 may be associated with greater change in depressive scores following adjunctive minocycline treatment in MDD. Further investigations are needed to assess the utility of these biomarkers.