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Adoptive immunotherapy combined with intratumoral TLR agonist delivery eradicates established melanoma in mice
journal contributionposted on 2011-05-01, 00:00 authored by Sally M Amos, Hollie J Pegram, Jennifer A Westwood, Liza RaymondLiza Raymond, Christel Devaud, Chris J Clarke, Nicholas P Restifo, Mark J Smyth, Phillip K Darcy, Michael H Kershaw
Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can trigger broad inflammatory responses that elicit rapid innate immunity and promote the activities of lymphocytes, which can potentially enhance adoptive immunotherapy in the tumor-bearing setting. In the present study, we found that Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid [Poly(I:C)] and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 [CpG], agonists for TLR 3 and 9, respectively, potently activated adoptively transferred T cells against a murine model of established melanoma. Intratumoral injection of Poly(I:C) and CpG, combined with systemic transfer of activated pmel-1 T cells, specific for gp10025–33, led to enhanced survival and eradication of 9-day established subcutaneous B16F10 melanomas in a proportion of mice. A series of survival studies in knockout mice supported a key mechanistic pathway, whereby TLR agonists acted via host cells to enhance IFN-γ production by adoptively transferred T cells. IFN-γ, in turn, enhanced the immunogenicity of the B16F10 melanoma line, leading to increased killing by adoptively transferred T cells. Thus, this combination approach counteracted tumor escape from immunotherapy via downregulation of immunogenicity. In conclusion, TLR agonists may represent advanced adjuvants within the setting of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy of cancer and hold promise as a safe means of enhancing this approach within the clinic.