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Agreement between 24-hour urine and 24-hour food recall in measuring salt intake in primary school children in Australia

Version 2 2024-06-14, 12:14
Version 1 2023-02-06, 23:28
journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-14, 12:14 authored by JA Santos, Kristy BoltonKristy Bolton, E Rosewarne, K Trieu, GL Di Tanna, M Woodward, J Webster, Carley GrimesCarley Grimes
Abstract Background Monitoring salt consumption in children is essential for informing and implementing public health interventions to reduce children’s salt intake. However, collection of 24-hour urines, considered as the most reliable approach, can be especially challenging to school children. This study aimed to assess the agreement between 24-hour urine (24hrU) and 24-hour food recall (24hrFR) in: (1) estimating salt intake in children; (2) classifying salt intakes above the recommended upper level set for children, and; (3) estimating change in mean salt intake over time. Methods This study utilised data from two cross-sectional surveys of school children aged 8 to 12 years living in the state of Victoria, Australia. A single 24hrU and 24hrFR were collected from each participant. Suspected inaccurate urine collections and implausible energy intakes were excluded based on pre-defined criteria. The agreement between the two methods was assessed using Bland-Altman methodology, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the kappa statistic. The difference between the measured change in salt intake over time using 24hrU and 24hrFR was derived using mixed effects linear regression analysis. Results A total of 588 participants provided a 24hrU and 24hrFR. Overall, there was no meaningful difference in mean estimated salt intake between the two methods (− 0.2 g/day, 95% CI − 0.5 to 0.1). The Bland-Altman plot showed wide 95% limits of agreement (− 7.2 to 6.8). The ICC between the two methods was 0.13 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.21). There was poor interrater reliability in terms of classifying salt intake above the recommended upper level for children, with an observed agreement of 63% and kappa statistic of 0.11. The change in mean salt intake over time was 0.2 g/day (− 0.4 to 0.7) based on 24hrU, and 0.5 g/day (− 0.0 to 1.1) based on 24hrFR, with a difference-in-differences of 0.4 g/day (− 0.3 to 1.1). Conclusions 24hrFR appears to provide a reasonable estimate of mean salt intake as measured by 24hrU in Australian school children. However, similar to previous observations in adults, and of studies exploring other alternative methods for estimating salt intake, 24hrFR is a poor predictor of individual-level salt intake in children.



Nutrition Journal



Article number





London, Eng.







Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal