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Aspergillus endocarditis 2003–2009

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journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-13, 10:19 authored by J McCormack, J Pollard
A retrospective study of 35 case reports of Aspergillus endocarditis published between 2003 and 2009 was carried out. Fifteen percent of cases presented with a new cardiac murmur, 38% with an embolus. Eighty percent of cases involved the aortic or mitral valves. Seventy-four percent of cases involved patients with a history of prior surgery, 48% of these involved a heart valve, 20% had other cardiac surgery and 32% had non-cardiac surgery. Galactomannan testing was helpful diagnostically in four out of nine cases, but PCR testing was positive in six out of six cases. Overall mortality was 68%, all eight survivors had heart valve surgery apart from one – an 8-month-old child. Seven out of eight survivors received liposomal amphotericin B, three of these in combination with other antifungals. We need to think more about the possibility of Aspergillus endocarditis, particularly in immunocompromised patients with recent surgery. Galactomannan and PCR testing may be used more vigorously. Valve replacement, or at least vegetectomy, should be carried out in all patients. Liposomal amphotericin B, 3 – 5mg/kg/day, for at least 4 weeks is the treatment of choice. Oral voriconazole should be used for at least 2 years. Posaconazole may be an alternative, however there have been no prior cases reported to suggest its efficacy. The value of combination antifungal therapy is uncertain, but consideration should be given to the use of a second agent in addition to liposomal amphotericin. While further case reports on this condition will be helpful, more definitive management guidelines will depend on a prospective study.

History

Journal

Medical mycology

Volume

49

Pagination

S30-S34

Location

Oxford, Eng.

ISSN

1369-3786

eISSN

1460-2709

Language

eng

Publication classification

C Journal article, C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2011, ISHAM

Issue

Suppl. 1

Publisher

Oxford University Press