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Assessing the Role of Muscle Protein Breakdown in Response to Nutrition and Exercise in Humans

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Version 2 2024-06-05, 00:43
Version 1 2018-08-24, 14:16
journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-14, 12:33 authored by KD Tipton, Lee HamiltonLee Hamilton, IJ Gallagher
Muscle protein breakdown (MPB) is an important metabolic component of muscle remodeling, adaptation to training, and increasing muscle mass. Degradation of muscle proteins occurs via the integration of three main systems-autophagy and the calpain and ubiquitin-proteasome systems. These systems do not operate independently, and the regulation is complex. Complete degradation of a protein requires some combination of the systems. Determination of MPB in humans is technically challenging, leading to a relative dearth of information. Available information on the dynamic response of MPB primarily comes from stable isotopic methods with expression and activity measures providing complementary information. It seems clear that resistance exercise increases MPB, but not as much as the increase in muscle protein synthesis. Both hyperaminoacidemia and hyperinsulinemia inhibit the post-exercise response of MPB. Available data do not allow a comprehensive examination of the mechanisms behind these responses. Practical nutrition recommendations for interventions to suppress MPB following exercise are often made. However, it is likely that some degree of increased MPB following exercise is an important component for optimal remodeling. At this time, it is not possible to determine the impact of nutrition on any individual muscle protein. Thus, until we can develop and employ better methods to elucidate the role of MPB following exercise and the response to nutrition, recommendations to optimize post exercise nutrition should focus on the response of muscle protein synthesis. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive examination of the state of knowledge, including methodological considerations, of the response of MPB to exercise and nutrition in humans.

History

Journal

Sports Medicine

Volume

48

Pagination

53-64

Location

New Zealand

Open access

  • Yes

ISSN

0112-1642

eISSN

1179-2035

Language

English

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2018, The Author(s)

Issue

S1

Publisher

ADIS INT LTD