Deakin University
Browse

File(s) under permanent embargo

Association between ultra-processed food consumption and cognitive performance in US older adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the NHANES 2011–2014

Version 2 2024-06-05, 05:47
Version 1 2023-02-09, 02:06
journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-05, 05:47 authored by B R Cardoso, Priscila MachadoPriscila Machado, EM Steele
Abstract Purpose This study evaluated the association between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and cognitive performance among older US adults. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed 3632 participants aged 60+ years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–14. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD), Word Learning test, Animal Fluency test, and the Digit Symbol Substitution test (DSST). Dietary intake was assessed using two 24-h diet recalls. Food items were classified according to the NOVA system, a classification based on the nature, extent, and purpose of industrial food processing. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association of dietary share of UPF (% of daily energy intake) (categorized as tertiles) and cognitive test scores, adjusting for socio-demographic variables, physical activity, smoking status, and chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and depression). Models excluding participants with pre-existing diseases were carried out to address potential reverse causality. Results On average, UPF accounted for 53% of total energy intake, ranging from 33 to 70% across extreme tertiles. Inverted U-shape association between UPF consumption and Animal fluency and DSST was observed. No significant associations were observed between the UPF intake tertiles and the cognitive test results. Nonetheless, UPF consumption was significantly associated with worse performance in Animal Fluency in older adults without pre-existing diseases (P < 0.05). Conclusion UPF consumption was associated with worse performance in Animal Fluency among older people without pre-existing diseases. Decreasing UPF consumption may be a way to improve impaired cognition among older adults.

History

Journal

European Journal of Nutrition

Volume

61

Pagination

3975-3985

Location

Germany

ISSN

1436-6207

eISSN

1436-6215

Language

English

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Issue

8

Publisher

SPRINGER HEIDELBERG