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Associations between parent and child pain and functioning in a pediatric chronic pain sample: a mixed methods approach
journal contributionposted on 2010-11-01, 00:00 authored by Subhadra EvansSubhadra Evans, M Meldrum, J Cl Tsao, R Fraynt, L K Zeltzer
This study employed a mixed-method design to test sex-specific parent-child pain associations. Subjects were 179 chronic pain patients aged 11-19 years (mean=14.34; 72% female) presenting for treatment at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic. Mothers and children completed questionnaires before their clinic visit, including measures of children's pain, functioning and psychological characteristics. Mothers also reported on their own pain and psychological functioning. Interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 34 mothers and children before the clinic visit and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The quantitative data suggest stronger mother-daughter than mother-son pain relationships. The qualitative data suggest that girls' pain and pain-related disability is related to an overly enmeshed mother-daughter relationship and the presence of maternal models of pain, whereas boys' pain and disability is linked to male pain models and criticism and to maternal worry and solicitousness. Boys and girls appear to have developmentally incongruous levels of autonomy and conformity to maternal expectations. The mixed-method data suggest distinct trajectories through which mother and father involvement might be linked to chronic pain in adolescent boys and girls. © 2010 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York.