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Avian Influenza Human Infections at the Human-Animal Interface

Version 2 2024-06-02, 23:02
Version 1 2023-07-17, 06:23
journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-02, 23:02 authored by DAM Philippon, P Wu, BJ Cowling, Eric LauEric Lau
Abstract Background Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) are among the most concerning emerging and re-emerging pathogens because of the potential risk for causing an influenza pandemic with catastrophic impact. The recent increase in domestic animals and poultry worldwide was followed by an increase of human AIV outbreaks reported. Methods We reviewed the epidemiology of human infections with AIV from the literature including reports from the World Health Organization, extracting information on virus subtype, time, location, age, sex, outcome, and exposure. Results We described the characteristics of more than 2500 laboratory-confirmed human infections with AIVs. Human infections with H5N1 and H7N9 were more frequently reported than other subtypes. Risk of death was highest among reported cases infected with H5N1, H5N6, H7N9, and H10N8 infections. Older people and males tended to have a lower risk of infection with most AIV subtypes, except for H7N9. Visiting live poultry markets was mostly reported by H7N9, H5N6, and H10N8 cases, while exposure to sick or dead bird was mostly reported by H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N7, and H10N7 cases. Conclusions Understanding the profile of human cases of different AIV subtypes would guide control strategies. Continued monitoring of human infections with AIVs is essential for pandemic preparedness.

History

Journal

Journal of Infectious Diseases

Volume

222

Pagination

528-537

Location

Oxford, Eng.

ISSN

0022-1899

eISSN

1537-6613

Language

English

Publication classification

C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Issue

4

Publisher

Oxford University Press

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