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Avian influenza human infections at the human-animal interface
journal contributionposted on 2023-07-17, 06:23 authored by DAM Philippon, P Wu, BJ Cowling, EHY Lau
Background. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) are among the most concerning emerging and re-emerging pathogens because of the potential risk for causing an influenza pandemic with catastrophic impact. The recent increase in domestic animals and poultry worldwide was followed by an increase of human AIV outbreaks reported. Methods. We reviewed the epidemiology of human infections with AIV from the literature including reports from the World Health Organization, extracting information on virus subtype, time, location, age, sex, outcome, and exposure. Results. We described the characteristics of more than 2500 laboratory-confirmed human infections with AIVs. Human infections with H5N1 and H7N9 were more frequently reported than other subtypes. Risk of death was highest among reported cases infected with H5N1, H5N6, H7N9, and H10N8 infections. Older people and males tended to have a lower risk of infection with most AIV subtypes, except for H7N9. Visiting live poultry markets was mostly reported by H7N9, H5N6, and H10N8 cases, while exposure to sick or dead bird was mostly reported by H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N7, and H10N7 cases. Conclusions. Understanding the profile of human cases of different AIV subtypes would guide control strategies. Continued monitoring of human infections with AIVs is essential for pandemic preparedness.
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avian influenzahuman infectionreviewAge FactorsAnimalsChinaHistory, 20th CenturyHistory, 21st CenturyHuman-Animal InteractionHumansInfluenza A virusInfluenza in BirdsInfluenza, HumanPoultrySex Factors3207 Medical Microbiology32 Biomedical and Clinical Sciences3202 Clinical SciencesVaccine RelatedPneumonia & InfluenzaEmerging Infectious DiseasesPreventionInfectious DiseasesInfluenza2 Aetiology2.2 Factors relating to the physical environmentInfectionBiological SciencesMedical and Health Sciences31 Biological sciences32 Biomedical and clinical sciences42 Health sciences