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Biology, Bias, or Both? The Contribution of Sex and Gender to the Disparity in Cardiovascular Outcomes Between Women and Men
journal contributionposted on 2023-02-09, 02:46 authored by Sarah GauciSarah Gauci, Susie CartledgeSusie Cartledge, J Redfern, R Gallagher, Rachel HuxleyRachel Huxley, C M Y Lee, A Vassallo, A O’Neil
Purpose of Review: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide for both men and women. However, CVD is understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in women. This bias has resulted in women being disproportionately affected by CVD when compared to men. The aim of this narrative review is to explore the contribution of sex and gender on CVD outcomes in men and women and offer recommendations for researchers and clinicians. Recent Findings: Evidence demonstrates that there are sex differences (e.g., menopause and pregnancy complications) and gender differences (e.g., socialization of gender) that contribute to the inequality in risk, presentation, and treatment of CVD in women. Summary: To start addressing the CVD issues that disproportionately impact women, it is essential that these sex and gender differences are addressed through educating health care professionals on gender bias; offering patient-centered care and programs tailored to women’s needs; and conducting inclusive health research.