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Biomarkers of Osteoarthritis—A Narrative Review on Causal Links with Metabolic Syndrome
journal contributionposted on 2023-03-09, 01:57 authored by Sam Lynskey, Marc Macaluso, Stephen Gill, Sean Mcgee, Richard PageRichard Page
Development of OA (OA) is multifactorial and is strongly associated with risk factors such as aging, trauma, metabolic disorders, and obesity. Metabolic Syndrome (MetS)-associated OA, collectively coined MetS-OA, is an increasingly recognized entity in which metabolic disorders and low-grade inflammation play a key mechanistic role in the disruption of joint homeostasis and cartilage degradation. Although there have been enormous efforts to discover biomarkers of MetS and OA, studies investigating a pathophysiological link between MetS and OA are relatively limited, and no serum blood marker has proved diagnostic so far. OA biomarkers that are necessary to discriminate and diagnose early disease remain to be elicited, explained in part by limited prospective studies, and therefore limited tools available to utilize in any prognostic capacity. Biomarker validation projects have been established by the Biomarker Consortium to determine biochemical markers demonstrating predictive validity for knee OA. Given that the metabolic constituents of MetS are treatable to varying extents, it stands to reason that treating these, and monitoring such treatment, may help to mitigate deleterious links with OA development. This narrative review will describe the current state of biomarker identification and utility in OA associated with MetS. We discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of disease according to constituent pathologies of MetS and how identification of biomarkers may guide future investigation of novel targets. Keywords: metabolic syndrome; osteoarthritis; omics; transcriptomics; MetS-OA; Metabolic Syndrome associated OA