Deakin University

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Body appreciation around the world: Measurement invariance of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) across 65 nations, 40 languages, gender identities, and age

journal contribution
posted on 2023-10-06, 03:54 authored by V Swami, US Tran, S Stieger, T Aavik, HA Ranjbar, SO Adebayo, R Afhami, O Ahmed, A Aimé, M Akel, HA Halbusi, G Alexias, KF Ali, N Alp-Dal, AB Alsalhani, S Álvares-Solas, ACS Amaral, S Andrianto, T Aspden, M Argyrides, JJBR Aruta, S Atkin, O Ayandele, M Baceviciene, R Bahbouh, A Ballesio, D Barron, A Bellard, SS Bender, KD Beydağ, G Birovljević, MÈ Blackburn, T Borja-Alvarez, J Borowiec, M Bozogáňová, S Bratland-Sanda, MHEM Browning, A Brytek-Matera, M Burakova, Y Çakır-Koçak, P Camacho, VE Camilleri, V Cazzato, S Cerea, A Chaiwutikornwanich, T Chaleeraktrakoon, Tim ChambersTim Chambers, QW Chen, X Chen, CL Chien, P Chobthamkit, B Choompunuch, EJ Compte, J Corrigan, G Cosmas, RG Cowden, K Czepczor-Bernat, M Czub, WR da Silva, M Dadfar, SE Dalley, L Dany, JAD Datu, PH Berbert de Carvalho, GLDH Coelho, AOS De Jesus, SH Debbabi, S Dhakal, F Di Bernardo, DD Dimitrova, J Dion, B Dixson, SM Donofrio, M Drysch, H Du, AM Dzhambov, C El-Jor, V Enea, M Eskin, F Farbod, L Farrugia, L Fian, ML Fisher, M Folwarczny, DA Frederick, Matthew Fuller-TyszkiewiczMatthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, A Furnham, AA García, S Geller, M Ghisi, A Ghorbani, MAG Martinez, S Gradidge, S Graf, C Grano, G Gyene, S Hallit, M Hamdan, JE Handelzalts, PHP Hanel
The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) is a widely used measure of a core facet of the positive body image construct. However, extant research concerning measurement invariance of the BAS-2 across a large number of nations remains limited. Here, we utilised the Body Image in Nature (BINS) dataset - with data collected between 2020 and 2022 - to assess measurement invariance of the BAS-2 across 65 nations, 40 languages, gender identities, and age groups. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis indicated that full scalar invariance was upheld across all nations, languages, gender identities, and age groups, suggesting that the unidimensional BAS-2 model has widespread applicability. There were large differences across nations and languages in latent body appreciation, while differences across gender identities and age groups were negligible-to-small. Additionally, greater body appreciation was significantly associated with higher life satisfaction, being single (versus being married or in a committed relationship), and greater rurality (versus urbanicity). Across a subset of nations where nation-level data were available, greater body appreciation was also significantly associated with greater cultural distance from the United States and greater relative income inequality. These findings suggest that the BAS-2 likely captures a near-universal conceptualisation of the body appreciation construct, which should facilitate further cross-cultural research.



Body Image






Amsterdam The Netherlands







Publication classification

C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal