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Cardiovascular Health in India – a Report Card from Three Urban and Rural Surveys of 22,144 Adults

journal contribution
posted on 2023-02-16, 03:37 authored by R Shivashankar, K Singh, D Kondal, R Gupta, P Perel, D Kapoor, D Jindal, S Mohan, R Pradeepa, P Jarhyan, NS Venkateshmurthy, N Tandon, V Mohan, KMV Narayan, D Prabhakaran, MK Ali
Background: Markers of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) predict cardiovascular events. We estimated the prevalence of ideal CVH markers in two levels of cities and villages in India. Methods: We did pooled analysis of individual-level data from three cross sectional surveys of adults ≥ 30 years over 2010–14 (CARRS: Centre for cArdiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia; UDAY and Solan Surveillance Study) representing metropolitan cities; smaller cities and rural areas in diverse locations of India. We defined ideal CVH using modified American Heart Association recommendations: not smoking, ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables (F&V), high physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI) <25 Kg/m2, blood pressure (BP) <120/80 mm Hg, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) <100 mg/ dl, and total cholesterol (TC) <200 mg/dL. We estimated (1) age-and sex-standardized prevalence of ideal CVH and (2) prevalence of good (≥6 markers), moderate (4–5), and poor CVH (≤3) adjusted for age, sex, education, and stratified by setting and asset tertiles. Results: Of the total 22,144 participants, the prevalence of ideal CVH markers were: not smoking (76.7% [95% CI 76.1, 77.2]), consumed ≥5 F&V (4.2% [3.9, 4.5]), high PA (67.5% [66.8, 68.2]), optimum BMI (59.6% [58.9, 60.3]), ideal BP (34.5% [33.9, 35.2]), FPG (65.8% [65.1, 66.5]) and TC (65.4% [64.7, 66.1]). The mean number of ideal CVH metrics was 3.7(95% CI: 3.7, 3.8). Adjusted prevalence of good, moderate, and poor CVH, varied across settings: metropolitan (3.9%, 41.0%, and 55.1%), smaller cities (7.8%, 49.2%, and 43%), and rural (10.4%, 60.9%, and 28.7%) and across asset tertiles: Low (11.0%, 55.9%, 33.1%), Middle (6.3%, 52.2%, 41.5%), and High (5.0%, 46.4%, 48.7%), respectively. Conclusion: Achievement of ideal CVH varied, with higher prevalence in rural and lower asset tertiles. Multi-sectoral and targeted policy and program actions are needed to improve CVH in diverse contexts in India.

History

Journal

Global Heart

Volume

17

Article number

ARTN 52

Location

England

ISSN

2211-8160

eISSN

2211-8179

Language

English

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Issue

1

Publisher

UBIQUITY PRESS LTD