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Characterizing problematic hypoglycaemia: Iterative design and preliminary psychometric validation of the Hypoglycaemia Awareness Questionnaire (HypoA-Q)

Version 2 2024-06-03, 14:54
Version 1 2015-06-23, 10:27
journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-03, 14:54 authored by Jane SpeightJane Speight, SM Barendse, H Singh, SA Little, B Inkster, BM Frier, SR Heller, MK Rutter, JAM Shaw
AIMS: To design and conduct preliminary validation of a measure of hypoglycaemia awareness and problematic hypoglycaemia, the Hypoglycaemia Awareness Questionnaire. METHODS: Exploratory and cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted with 17 adults (nine of whom were women) with Type 1 diabetes (mean ± sd age 48±10 years). Questionnaire items were modified in consultation with diabetologists/psychologists. Psychometric validation was undertaken using data from 120 adults (53 women) with Type 1 diabetes (mean ± sd age 44±16 years; 50% with clinically diagnosed impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia), who completed the following questionnaires: the Hypoglycaemia Awareness Questionnaire, the Gold score, the Clarke questionnaire and the Problem Areas in Diabetes questionnaire. RESULTS: Iterative design resulted in 33 items eliciting answers on awareness of hypoglycaemia when awake/asleep and hypoglycaemia frequency, severity and impact (healthcare utilization). Psychometric analysis identified three subscales reflecting 'impaired awareness', 'symptom level' and 'symptom frequency'. Convergent validity was indicated by strong correlations between the impaired awareness subscale and existing measures of awareness: (Gold: rs =0.75, P<0.01; Clarke: rs =0.76, P<0.01). Divergent validity was indicated by weaker correlations with diabetes-related distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes: rs =0.25, P<0.01) and HbA1c (rs =-0.05, non-significant). The impaired awareness subscale and other items discriminated between those with impaired and intact awareness (Gold score). The impaired awareness subscale and other items contributed significantly to models explaining the occurrence of severe hypoglycaemia and hypoglycaemia when asleep. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary validation shows the Hypoglycaemia Awareness Questionnaire has robust face and content validity; satisfactory structure; internal reliability; convergent, divergent and known groups validity. The impaired awareness subscale and other items contribute significantly to models explaining recall of severe and nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Prospective validation, including determination of a threshold to identify impaired awareness, is now warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

History

Journal

Diabetic Medicine

Volume

33

Pagination

376-385

Location

England

ISSN

0742-3071

eISSN

1464-5491

Language

English

Publication classification

C Journal article, C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2015, The Authors

Issue

3

Publisher

WILEY-BLACKWELL