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Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores

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journal contribution
posted on 2015-05-01, 00:00 authored by W Ripple, Thomas Newsome, C Wolf, R Dirzo, K Everatt, M Galetti, M Hayward, G Kerley, T Levi, P Lindsey, D Macdonald, Y Malhi, L Painter, C Sandom, J Terborgh, B Van Valkenburgh
Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are
generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change, and resource depression by livestock. Loss of large herbivores can have cascading effects on other species including large carnivores, scavengers, mesoherbivores, small mammals, and ecological processes involving vegetation, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and fire regimes. The rate of large herbivore decline suggests that ever-larger
swaths of the world will soon lack many of the vital ecological services these animals provide, resulting in enormous ecological and social costs.

History

Journal

Science advances

Volume

1

Issue

4

Season

Article number: e1400103

Pagination

1 - 12

Publisher

American Association for the Advancement of Science

Location

Washington, D.C.

eISSN

2375-2548

Language

eng

Publication classification

C Journal article; C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2015, The Authors

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