Deakin University
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Core outcome set for diabetes after pregnancy prevention across the life span: international Delphi study

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journal contribution
posted on 2020-11-03, 00:00 authored by Nancy Wu, Sharleen O'ReillySharleen O'Reilly, Karoline Kragelund Nielsen, Helle Terkildsen Maindal, Kaberi Dasgupta
Introduction: Mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk of future diabetes. An active area of research examines health behavior change strategies in women within 5 years of a GDM pregnancy to prevent diabetes after pregnancy. We aimed to develop a core outcome set (COS) to facilitate synthesis and comparison across trials.

Research: design and methods Candidate outcomes were identified through systematic review and scored for importance (1–9) by healthcare professionals, researchers, and women with prior GDM through an international two-round electronic-Delphi survey. Outcomes retained required round two scores above prespecified thresholds (≥70% scoring 7–9) or expert panel endorsement when scores were indeterminate. The panel organized the COS by domain.

Results: 115 stakeholders participated in the survey and 56 completed both rounds. SD of scores decreased by 0.24 (95%CI 0.21 to 0.27) by round 2, signaling convergence. The final COS includes 19 domains (50 outcomes): diabetes (n=3 outcomes), other related diseases (n=3), complications in subsequent pregnancy (n=2), offspring outcomes (n=3), adiposity (n=4), cardiometabolic measures (n=5), glycemia (n=3), physical activity (n=2), diet (n=4), breast feeding (n=2), behavior change theory (n=5), diabetes-related knowledge (n=2), health literacy (n=1), social support (n=1), sleep (n=1), quality of life (n=1), program delivery (n=4), health economic evaluation (n=2), and diabetes risk screening (n=2). The seven outcomes endorsed by ≥90% were diabetes development and GDM recurrence, attending the postpartum diabetes screening and completing oral glucose tolerance testing and/or other glycemia measures, weight and total energy intake, and health behaviors in general. Among the 15 at the 80%–90% endorsement level, approximately half were specific elements related to the top 7, while the remainder related to diabetes knowledge, personal risk perception, motivation for change, program element completion, and health service use and cost.

Conclusion: Researchers should collect and report outcomes from the breadth of domains in the COS.



BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care





Article number



1 - 13




London, Eng.







Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

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2020, The Authors