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Cost-utility analysis of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as add-on therapy to standard care for the treatment of hallucinations in schizophrenia

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journal contribution
posted on 01.01.2022, 00:00 authored by L Hendriks, Cathy Mihalopoulos, Long Le, C Loo, M L Chatterton
Abstract
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t Background
t This research evaluates the cost-effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as add-on therapy to standard care for adults with schizophrenia from an Australian health system perspective.
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t Methods
t A Markov model estimated costs in 2021 Australian dollars and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) averted with rTMS added to standard care compared to standard care alone over 12-months for adults aged 25–65 years with hallucinations in schizophrenia refractory to other therapies. rTMS effect size was sourced from a meta-analysis and converted to a relative risk using the Cochrane conversion method. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis evaluated uncertainty in effect size and disability weights. One-way sensitivity analyses varied rTMS session cost and effectiveness, time horizon and inpatient costs.
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t Results
t The base-case average incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $87,310/DALY averted (95% UI: $10,157–$97,877). Reducing rTMS session cost to $100 lowered the ICER to $9,127/DALY (95% UI: Dominant–$50,699). A 4-year time horizon resulted in rTMS being less costly and more effective (Dominant) than standard care. Decreasing the 3-month probability of relapse with rTMS to 4.6% resulted in a 71% probability of rTMS being cost-effective.
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t Conclusions
t Using a threshold of $50,000/ DALY averted, rTMS as add-on therapy to standard care for the treatment of refractory hallucinations in schizophrenia would not be considered a cost-effective treatment option compared to standard care alone. However, given the refractory nature of this condition and the relatively small size of this population, it may be reasonable for decision-makers to adopt a higher ICER threshold.
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History

Journal

European Psychiatry

Volume

65

Issue

1

Article number

ARTN e22

Pagination

1 - 9

Publisher

Cambridge University Press

Location

Cambridge, Eng.

ISSN

0924-9338

eISSN

1778-3585

Language

English

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal