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Creation of a Short-Form and Brief Short-Form Version of the Coping With Children’s Negative Emotions Scale
journal contributionposted on 2023-02-09, 01:59 authored by GL King, CE Kehoe, SS Havighurst, GJ Youssef, Jacqui MacdonaldJacqui Macdonald, JC Dunsmore, Tomer BerkowitzTomer Berkowitz, Elizabeth WestruppElizabeth Westrupp
The Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale (CCNES) is a widely used measure of parent emotion socialization; however, it is a lengthy measure and it is unclear whether all items are appropriately aligned with, and fully capture, the underlying constructs. We aimed to examine content validity of the CCNES, evaluate the theoretical alignment between the CCNES and Gottman, Katz and Hooven’s meta-emotion theory, and develop two short-forms. Participants were parents of children aged 4 to 10 years ( N = 937) from the longitudinal study the Child and Parent Emotion Study ( https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/10/10/e038124 ). Content experts qualitatively evaluated parent-report items of the CCNES and additional items that measured empathy. Nineteen of the 84 items were found to not align with the meta-emotion theory. The latent structures of the CCNES and empathy subscales were quantitatively evaluated via confirmatory factor analysis. Items with poor psychometric properties were subsequently removed. An 18-item short-form (three emotion coaching subscales, three emotion dismissing subscales) and 6-item brief short-form (one emotion coaching subscale, one emotion dismissing subscale) with strong psychometric properties were created using a calibration sample ( n = 468, that is, 50% of N = 937) and cross-validated with a validation sample. The short-form CCNES measures provide viable, theoretically consistent alternatives to the original CCNES measure.
Publication classificationC1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
AWARENESSBEHAVIORSBELIEFSchild emotional developmentCHILDHOODCONTENT VALIDITYemotion socializationemotion socialization assessmentFAMILY CONTEXTMETA-EMOTIONPARENTAL EMOTIONparentingPsychologyPsychology, ClinicalSocial SciencesSOCIALIZATIONVALIDATIONClinical ResearchMental HealthMind and BodyPediatricBehavioral and Social ScienceBasic Behavioral and Social SciencePsychology not elsewhere classified