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Development of the multidimensional readiness and enablement index for health technology (READHY) tool to measure individuals' health technology readiness: initial testing in a cancer rehabilitation setting

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posted on 2019-02-01, 00:00 authored by Lars Kayser, Sine Rossen, Astrid Karnoe, Gerald Elsworth, Jette Vibe-Petersen, Jesper Frank Christensen, Mathias Ried-Larsen, Richard Osborne
BACKGROUND: The increasing digitization of health care services with enhanced access to fast internet connections, along with wide use of smartphones, offers the opportunity to get health advice or treatment remotely. For service providers, it is important to consider how consumers can take full advantage of available services and how this can create an enabling environment. However, it is important to consider the digital context and the attributes of current and future users, such as their readiness (ie, knowledge, skills, and attitudes, including trust and motivation). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate how the eHealth Literacy Questionnaire (eHLQ) combined with selected dimensions from the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) can be used together as an instrument to characterize an individual's level of health technology readiness and explore how the generated data can be used to create health technology readiness profiles of potential users of health technologies and digital health services. METHODS: We administered the instrument and sociodemographic questions to a population of 305 patients with a recent cancer diagnosis referred to rehabilitation in a setting that plans to introduce various technologies to assist the individuals. We evaluated properties of the Readiness and Enablement Index for Health Technology (READHY) instrument using confirmatory factor analysis, convergent and discriminant validity analysis, and exploratory factor analysis. To identify different health technology readiness profiles in the population, we further analyzed the data using hierarchical and k-means cluster analysis. RESULTS: The confirmatory factor analysis found a suitable fit for the 13 factors with only 1 cross-loading of 1 item between 2 dimensions. The convergent and discriminant validity analysis revealed many factor correlations, suggesting that, in this population, a more parsimonious model might be achieved. Exploratory factor analysis pointed to 5 to 6 constructs based on aggregates of the existing dimensions. The results were not satisfactory, so we performed an 8-factor confirmatory factor analysis, resulting in a good fit with only 1 item cross-loading between 2 dimensions. Cluster analysis showed that data from the READHY instrument can be clustered to create meaningful health technology readiness profiles of users. CONCLUSIONS: The 13 dimensions from heiQ, HLQ, and eHLQ can be used in combination to describe a user's health technology readiness level and degree of enablement. Further studies in other populations are needed to understand whether the associations between dimensions are consistent and the number of dimensions can be reduced.



Journal of medical internet research





Article number



1 - 14


JMIR Publications


Toronto, Ont.





Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2019, Lars Kayser, Sine Rossen, Astrid Karnoe, Gerald Elsworth, Jette Vibe-Petersen, Jesper Frank Christensen, Mathias Ried-Larsen, Richard H Osborne