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Dietary patterns and associations with biomarkers of inflammation in adults: a systematic review of observational studies

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journal contribution
posted on 01.01.2021, 00:00 authored by Michael Hart, Susan TorresSusan Torres, Sarah McNaughtonSarah McNaughton, Catherine MilteCatherine Milte
Abstract
Background
Evidence indicates that low-grade inflammation is involved in manychronic diseases of ageing. Modifiable lifestyle factors including dietcan affect low-grade inflammation. Dietary patterns allow assessment of the complex interactions of food nutrients and health and may be associated with inflammatory status.
This systematic review aimed to summarises current evidence from observational studies for associations between dietary patterns and inflammatory biomarkers in the general adult population. This review followed the PRISMA guidelines.

Methods
We conducted a systematic search in Embase, CINAHL Complete, Global Health and MEDLINE complete databases. Search terms included terms for diet (“dietary patterns”, “diet scores”) and inflammation (“inflammation“, “c-reactive protein“, “interleukin“).

Results
The search produced 7161 records. Duplicates were removed leaving 3164 for screening. There were 69 studies included (60 cross-sectional, 9 longitudinal). Papers included studies that were: 1) observational studies; 2) conducted in community-dwelling adults over 18 years of age; 3) assessed dietary patterns; 4) measured specified biomarkers of inflammation and 5) published in English. Dietary patterns were assessed using diet scores (n = 45), data-driven approaches (n = 22), both a data-driven approach and diet score (n = 2). The most frequently assessed biomarkers were CRP (n = 64) and/or IL-6 (n = 22). Cross-sectionally the majority of analyses reported an association between higher diet scores (mostly Mediterranean and anti-inflammatory diet scores) and lower inflammatory markers with 82 significant associations from 133 analyses. Only 22 of 145 cross-sectional analyses using data-driven approaches reported an association between a dietary patterns and lower inflammatory markers; the majority reported no association. Evidence of an association between dietary patterns and inflammatory markers longitudinally is limited, with the majority reporting no association.

Conclusions
Adherence to healthy, Mediterranean and anti-inflammatory dietary scores, appear to be associated with lower inflammatory status cross-sectionally. Future research could focus on longitudinal studies using a potential outcomes approach in the data analysis.

Trial registration
PROSPERO Registration Number CRD42019114501.

History

Journal

Nutrition Journal

Volume

20

Issue

1

Article number

24

Pagination

1 - 14

Publisher

BMC

Location

London, Eng.

ISSN

1475-2891

eISSN

1475-2891

Language

eng

Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal