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Distinct disulfide isomers of μ-Conotoxins KIIIA and KIIIB block voltage-gated sodium channels

Version 2 2024-06-06, 12:32
Version 1 2014-10-28, 10:32
journal contribution
posted on 2024-06-06, 12:32 authored by K Khoo, K Gupta, B Green, MM Zhang, M Watkins, B Olivera, P Balaram, D Toshikami, G Bulaj, R Norton
In the preparation of synthetic conotoxins containing multiple disulfide bonds, oxidative folding can produce numerous permutations of disulfide bond connectivities. Establishing the native disulfide connectivities thus presents a significant challenge when the venom-derived peptide is not available, as is increasingly the case when conotoxins are identified from cDNA sequences. Here, we investigate the disulfide connectivity of μ-conotoxin KIIIA, which was predicted originally to have a [C1–C9,C2–C15,C4–C16] disulfide pattern based on homology with closely related μ-conotoxins. The two major isomers of synthetic μ-KIIIA formed during oxidative folding were purified and their disulfide connectivities mapped by direct mass spectrometric collision-induced dissociation fragmentation of the disulfide-bonded polypeptides. Our results show that the major oxidative folding product adopts a [C1–C15,C2–C9,C4–C16] disulfide connectivity, while the minor product adopts a [C1–C16,C2–C9,C4–C15] connectivity. Both of these peptides were potent blockers of NaV1.2 (Kd values of 5 and 230 nM, respectively). The solution structure for μ-KIIIA based on nuclear magnetic resonance data was recalculated with the [C1–C15,C2–C9,C4–C16] disulfide pattern; its structure was very similar to the μ-KIIIA structure calculated with the incorrect [C1–C9,C2–C15,C4–C16] disulfide pattern, with an α-helix spanning residues 7–12. In addition, the major folding isomers of μ-KIIIB, an N-terminally extended isoform of μ-KIIIA identified from its cDNA sequence, were isolated. These folding products had the same disulfide connectivities as μ-KIIIA, and both blocked NaV1.2 (Kd values of 470 and 26 nM, respectively). Our results establish that the preferred disulfide pattern of synthetic μ-KIIIA and μ-KIIIB folded in vitro is 1–5/2–4/3–6 but that other disulfide isomers are also potent sodium channel blockers. These findings raise questions about the disulfide pattern(s) of μ-KIIIA in the venom of Conus kinoshitai; indeed, the presence of multiple disulfide isomers in the venom could provide a means of further expanding the snail’s repertoire of active peptides.



Biochemistry : including biophysical chemistry & molecular biology






Oxford, Eng.





Publication classification

C1.1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal

Copyright notice

2012, ACS Publications




ACS Publications