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Disturbances of purine and lipid metabolism in the microbiota-gut-brain axis in male adolescent nonhuman primates with depressive-like behaviors
journal contributionposted on 2023-05-05, 01:51 authored by T Teng, G Clarke, J Wu, Q Wu, M Maes, J Wang, H Wu, B Yin, Y Jiang, X Li, X Liu, Y Han, J Song, X Jin, P Ji, Y Guo, X Zhou, P Xie
Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents is a widespread and growing global public health concern with unique characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms that are distinct from MDD in adults. Objective: The purpose of our work was to address this knowledge gap about the unique characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms of adolescent depression from a microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis perspective. Method: Ten healthy male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were paired into five pairs based on age and body weight, and two cynomolgus macaques from each pair were randomly allocated to chronic unpredictable mild stress group, or unstressed control group. At endpoint, microbe composition from cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, and descending colon were analyzed by metagenome sequencing, and the metabolite profiles of MGB axis including central (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala) and peripheral (plasma, gut and feces of cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon and descending colon) samples were analyzed by metabolomic profiling. Then, we compare the gut microbiome and metabolic signatures in MGB axis between adolescent and adult depressed macaques. Results: The microbial composition and gut-brain metabolic signatures were widely divergent between adolescent and adult depressed macaques, though the phylum Firmicutes and lipid metabolism pathways were persistently altered in both populations. Purine and arginine biosynthesis metabolism were a specific hallmark of adolescent depressed macaques, while fatty acyl metabolism was specially altered in adult. These differential metabolic pathways in adolescent and adult depressed macaques were mainly mapped into the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, respectively. Notably, the genus Clostridium and Haemophilus, characteristically disturbed in adolescent depressed macaques but not in adult, were also significantly associated with the majority of purine metabolites in MGB axis. Conclusion: These findings provide a new framework describing divergent pathophysiological mechanisms between adolescent and adult depression, and may open new windows for more effective treatment strategies of adolescent depression.
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