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Effect of dietary intervention, with or without co-interventions, on inflammatory markers in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic literature review

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journal contribution
posted on 2019-11-01, 00:00 authored by A J Reddy, Elena GeorgeElena George, S K Roberts, A C Tierney
Context: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of liver disorders, ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with inflammation acting as a key driver in its pathogenesis and progression. Diet has the potential to mediate the release of inflammatory markers; however, little is known about the effects of various diets. Objective: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary interventions on cytokines and adipokines in patients with NAFLD. Data Sources: The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library were searched for clinical trials investigating dietary interventions, with or without supplementation, on cytokines and adipokines in NAFLD patients. Data Extraction: Basic characteristics of populations, dietary intervention protocol, cytokines, and adipokines were extracted for each study. Quality of evidence was assessed using the American Dietetic Association criteria. Data Analysis: Nineteen studies with a total of 874 participants were included. The most frequently reported inflammatory outcomes were C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), adiponectin, and leptin. Hypocaloric, isocaloric, or low-fat diets significantly (P < 0.05) lowered levels of CRP, TNF-α, and adiponectin. The addition of nutraceutical or pharmacological supplementation to dietary interventions appeared to elicit additional benefits for all of the most frequently reported inflammatory markers. Conclusions: Hypo- or isocaloric diets alone, or with co-interventions that included a nutraceutical or pharmacological supplementation, appear to improve the inflammatory profile in patients with NAFLD. Thus, anti-inflammatory diets may have the potential to improve underlying chronic inflammation that underpins the pathophysiological mechanisms of NAFLD. In the absence of any known liver-sensitive markers, the use of cytokines and adipokines as a surrogate marker of liver disease should be further investigated in well-controlled trials.



Nutrition reviews






765 - 786


Oxford University Press


Oxford, Eng.







Publication classification

C1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal