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Effect of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants on glycaemic control, cardiovascular health, and oxidative stress in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
journal contributionposted on 2022-06-01, 00:00 authored by Shaun MasonShaun Mason, Glenn WadleyGlenn Wadley, Michelle KeskeMichelle Keske, Lewan ParkerLewan Parker
Aim: To investigate the effects of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants (mitoAOXs) on glycaemic control, cardiovascular health, and oxidative stress outcomes in humans. Materials and Methods: Randomized controlled trials investigating mitoAOX interventions in humans were searched for in databases (MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) and clinical trial registries up to 10 June 2021. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations were used to assess trial quality and evidence certainty, respectively. Results: Nineteen studies (n = 884 participants) using mitoAOXs (including Elamipretide, MitoQ and MitoTEMPO) were included in the systematic review. There were limited studies investigating the effects of mitoAOXs on glycaemic control; and outcomes and population groups in studies focusing on cardiovascular health were diverse. MitoAOXs significantly improved brachial flow-mediated dilation (n = 3 trials; standardized mean difference: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.28, 2.16; I2: 67%) with very low evidence certainty. No significant effects were found for any other glycaemic, cardiovascular or oxidative stress-related outcomes with mitoAOXs in quantitative analyses, with evidence certainty rated mostly as low. There was a lack of serious treatment-emergent adverse events with mitoAOXs, although subcutaneous injection of Elamipretide increased mild–moderate injection site-related events. Conclusion: While short-term studies indicate that mitoAOXs are generally well tolerated, there is currently limited evidence to support the use of mitoAOXs in the management of glycaemic control and cardiovascular health. Review findings suggest that future research should focus on the effects of mitoAOXs on glycaemic control and endothelial function in target clinical population groups.