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Effectiveness of combined nutrition and exercise interventions on body weight, lean mass, and fat mass in adults diagnosed with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
journal contributionposted on 2023-02-09, 23:39 authored by Brenton BaguleyBrenton Baguley, Jack Dalla Via, Steve FraserSteve Fraser, Robin DalyRobin Daly, Nicole KissNicole Kiss
Abstract Context Changes in body weight and composition (fat and lean mass) are prominent side effects of cancer treatment. Nutrition and exercise interventions are both key strategies to protect against these adverse effects, yet their impact when combined has not been comprehensively reviewed in adults with cancer. Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the effects of combined nutrition and exercise interventions on body weight and composition in adults with cancer. Data Sources Four databases were searched until January 2021. Combined nutrition and exercise randomized controlled trials that detailed the nutrition and exercise prescription and reported body weight and composition outcomes were eligible. Data Extraction Risk of bias was assessed through the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The number of participants, mean values, and standard deviations of the outcome variables were extracted. Mean differences (MDs) were pooled using random-effects models. Predetermined subgroup analyses included cancer type, intervention intent, exercise modality, and use of behavior change strategies. Data Analysis Twenty-three RCTs were included. Nutrition plus exercise interventions significantly reduced body weight (MD − 2.13 kg; 95%CI, − 3.07 to − 1.19), fat mass (MD − 2.06 kg; 95%CI, − 3.02 to − 1.09), and lean mass (MD − 0.43; 95%CI, − 0.82 to − 0.04). Subgroup analyses in women with breast cancer showed that weight loss interventions and interventions incorporating behavior change strategies significantly reduced body weight and fat mass but also reduced lean mass. Interventions aiming to maintain body weight showed no changes in body weight, as intended. Conclusion Combined nutrition and exercise interventions successfully reduce body weight and fat mass in adults with cancer but also reduce lean mass. In contrast, weight loss–focused interventions are associated mostly with reduced lean mass. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO registration number CRD42020161805.
Publication classificationC1 Refereed article in a scholarly journal
PublisherOXFORD UNIV PRESS INC
Science & TechnologyLife Sciences & BiomedicineNutrition & Dieteticsbody compositioncancerexercisenutritionRANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIALBREAST-CANCERLIFE-STYLECIRCULATING BIOMARKERSRESISTANCE EXERCISESURVIVORSOVERWEIGHTTHERAPYMUSCLEGUIDELINESCancerClinical Trials and Supportive ActivitiesClinical ResearchObesityNutritionPreventionBreast Cancer6 Evaluation of treatments and therapeutic interventions6.7 PhysicalMedical and Health SciencesPsychology and Cognitive Sciences