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Effects of a multi-modal resistance exercise program and calcium-vitamin D3 fortified milk on blood pressure and blood lipids in middle-aged and older men: secondary analysis of an 18-month factorial design randomised controlled trial
journal contributionposted on 2023-01-19, 23:26 authored by S Foulkes, S Kukuljan, Caryl NowsonCaryl Nowson, K M Sanders, Robin DalyRobin Daly
Purpose: Physical activity and dietary interventions are recommended as front-line therapy for prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the independent and combined effects of low-fat, calcium-vitamin D3 fortified milk and multi-modal exercise training on blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids in middle-aged and older men. Methods: This was a pre-planned secondary analysis of an 18-month, randomised controlled trial. Community-dwelling men aged 50–79 years (n = 180) were randomised into (i) exercise + fortified milk; (ii) fortified milk; (iii) exercise; or (iv) control. The low-fat milk (400 mL/day) was fortified with 1,000 mg/day calcium and 800 IU/day of vitamin-D3, whilst the exercise intervention consisted of three sessions/week of resistance- and weight-bearing impact exercises. Resting BP and fasting lipids were assessed at baseline, 6 (lipids only), 12 and 18 months. Results: Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D and calcium intake for the entire cohort at baseline was 86 ± 36 nmol/L and 1002 ± 397 mg/day, respectively, with 10% classified as vitamin-D insufficient and 58% reporting a calcium intake below 1000 mg/day. There were no exercise-by-fortified milk interactions, nor any main-group effects for exercise or milk on BP or lipids at any time. However, there were significant reductions from baseline to 18 months in systolic (mean change, 5–8 mmHg) and diastolic (4–6 mmHg) BP in the exercise, fortified milk and control groups. All results remained largely unchanged after adjusting for use of anti-hypertensive or lipid lowering medication, weight or fat mass, or only including men with hypertension (n = 89) or dyslipidemia (n = 130) at baseline. Conclusion: Supplementation with low-fat, calcium + vitamin D3 fortified milk and a multi-modal exercise program, alone or in combination, was not effective for improving BP or blood lipids in community-dwelling middle-aged and older men.